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What does it mean to be a threat multiplier?
Climate and environmental change are threat multipliers because they exacerbate other issues.
Climate and environmental change exacerbates these issues which negatively impact political stability and threaten to cause conflict.
How can these drivers of instability conflict be mitigated?
Sustainability is the ability to provide for present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. - The Bundtland Commission
What about sustainable development?
Similar to sustainability, sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. - The Bundtland Commission
Sustainable development should be an END
of national strategy.
Like all major issues today, sustainable development is very complex and it requires collaboration between different entities in different sectors to succeed. This collaboration is called cross-sector collaboration (CSC).
CSC is the linking or sharing of information, resources, activities, and capabilities by organizations in two or more sectors to achieve jointly an outcome that could not have been achieved by organizations in one sector acting separately. - Bryson, Crosby, and Stone
How does one create a CSC?
After accessing initial conditions, one must design an effective process for CSC.
Design an effective process
Forge initial agreements
Engage in deliberate planning
Design a process that builds collaborative capacity, employs stakeholder analyzes, and emphases responsiveness
Use inclusive convening structures to create inclusive structures
Create effective structural and governance approach
Clarity type of collaboration
Adapt the structure to the context
Adapt the structure to the task
Create an effective governance arrangement
Creating and doing CSC is hard. It is even harder to do internationally.
If not, what needs to be done to create the MEANS for CSC for sustainable development and security between the US and India?
We need to develop an understanding of each other's strategic culture.
Both US and India need to develop a better understanding of each other's policy-making processes as well.
Additionally, government agencies of each country must understand one another.
We need to improve leadership through education to understand the complexity of an issue and the role other sectors have in solving the issue.
Migration (internal and external)
Costs of catastrophic weather
Destruction and degradation of land
Spread of disease
Cases studies for CSC for sustainability and sustainable development
BYST is an example of collaboration between
the non-profit and business sectors for the social aim of empowering Indian entrepreneurs.
BYST (Indian Youth Power Trust)
HESE (Humanitarian Engineering and Social Entrepreneurship)
HESE is an example of collaboration between Penn State's educational disciplines within its organization and collaboration with the business sector and international organization sector for its activities.
ALLARM (Alliance for Aquatic Resource Monitoring)
ALLARM is a water monitoring organization that relies on collaboration with community organizations and government regulatory agencies (at multiple levels) to enure the water quality of Pennsylvania waterways and enforce environmental regulations.
The U.S.-India Relationship in the 21st Century: Challenges for Strategic Leaders; Opportunities for Cross-Sector Collaboration to Promote Sustainable Development
A Companion Guide
What does being an "END" mean?
CSC is the WAY we will explore to achieve the END (objective of) sustainable development.
Does the U.S. have the MEANS to lead CSC?
Strategy: Ends, Ways, and Means
End- the aim or objective of a strategy; gives the strategy direction and desired outcome.
Ways- an approach to achieving the desired END; how this the end going to be achieved.
Means- elements of power that can be used to achieve the END; the power resources and abilities that are need for the WAYS by which the END is pursued.
In this case...
Sustainable development in India is the desired END.
Cross-sector collaboration (CSC) is the WAY to achieve sustainable development in India.
MEANS are required for CSC between the U.S. and India; let's return to the main presentation for this part.
The MEANS necessary for CSC are not physical; the MEANS for CSC involve abilities to collaborate with partners that have the required capabilities.
Understanding of strategic culture and cross-sector leadership improves the potential for the creation of CSC.
Specifically, the ability to lead CSC requires:
The ability to engage in open communication and to contemplate coordination across sectoral boundaries.
The ability to identify the interests of various stakeholders.
Goodwill from prior relationships and experiences.
The creation of institutional structures within each organization to accommodate collaboration.
In what other ways can the model of CSC be used?
The model of CSC may be applicable to:
Efforts to improve the interagency coordination and the "whole of government" approach to better coordinate elements of power for other ENDS
Improving civilian-military relations
In a sentence, a strategic goal (END) will by achieved through a series of coordinated actions (WAYS) using instruments of national power (MEANS).
These abilities constitute the MEANS required for CSC and therefore, these abilities are elements of power.
When elements of power are used as part of a chosen WAY, they become transformed into instruments of power.
The Hershey's Company has been involved in philanthropy since its founding. Today, one of Hershey's initiatives in West Africa uses CSC to bring technology and education to Ghana.
Global Alliance for Improving Nutrition (GAIN)
FSG Social Impact Consultants has conducted a series of case studies of collaboration efforts to understand what makes some collaborations succeed. They have applied these lessons to GAIN, the backbone of a collaborative effort that includes governments, companies, and civil society to improve nutrition of at-risk countries.
FSG's case studies have revealed several major insights into CSC.
First insight is that organizations that worked for collective impact were more successful than isolated impact efforts.
Collective impact groups are CSC in which government and corporate sectors are essential partners; participants share a common goal and measurements; and organizations actively coordinate their actions and share lessons learned.
FSG also found that collective impact groups were largely successful if they met five conditions for shared success.
Conditions for Shared Success:
Common Agenda- all participants have a shared vision for change including a common understanding of the problem and an agreed-upon joint approach
Shared Measurement- collecting data and measuring results consistently across all participants ensures efforts remain aligned and participants hold each other accountable
Mutually Reinforcing Activities- participant activities must be differentiated while still coordinated through a mutually reinforcing plan of action
Continuous Communication- consistent and open communication is needed across the participants to build trust, assure mutual objectives, and appreciate common motivation
Backbone Support- creating and managing collective impact requires a separate organization with staff and a specific set of skills to provide structure to the initiative and coordinate participants
From Bryson, Crosby, and Stone
From Bryson, Crosby, and Stone
A special thanks to those who participate in this workshop
Dr. Michael Beevers- Assistant Professor of Environmental Studies, Dickinson College
Dr. Stephen J. Blank- Research Professor of National Security Affairs, U.S. Army Strategic Studies Institute
Dr. John M. Bryson- McKnight Presidential Professor of Planning and Public Affairs, University of Minnesota
Dr. John L. Clarke- Professor of Defense Management and Strategic Studies and Director of the Program on Civil Security, Marshall Center
Dr. Barbara C. Crosby- Associate Professor, Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs
Amb. Chandrashekhar Dasgupta- former Indian Ambassador to China (1993-1996) and to the E.U., Belgium, and Luxembourg
Dr. Michael Fratantuono- Associate Professor of International Studies, Business, and Management, Dickinson College
Dr. Namrata Goswami- Jennings Randolph Senior Fellow, U.S. Institute of Peace
Dhanasree Jayaram- Associate Fellow, Centre for Air Power Studies
Dr. John A. Kelmelis- Professor, Pennsylvania State University
Dr. Neil Leary- Director of the Center for Environmental & Sustainability Education, Dickinson College
Dr. Richard Matthew- Professor of Planning, Policy & Design and Political Science, University of California- Irvine
Dr. Khanjan Mehta- Director of the Humanitarian Engineering and Social Entrepreneurship Program, Pennsylvania State University
Dr. Jeffery D. McCausland- Visiting Professor of International Security, Dickinson College
Dr. Leif Rosenberger- former Chief Economist, U.S. Pacific Command (1998-2007) and U.S. Central Command (2007- 2013?)
Andrew Salamone- Research Fellow, Center for Strategic Intelligence Research, National Defense University
Dr. David Sarcone- Associate Professor of International Business and Management, Dickinson College
Gen. Vijay Singh (Ret.)- former Chief of Staff of the Indian Army
Lalitha Vaidyanathan- Managing Director, FSG Social Impact Consultants
Group Capt. Krishnappa Venkatshamy- Project Director ISDA-DRDO Project Strategic Trends 2050
Dr. Ivan Welch- Foreign Area Analyst (Southeast and South Asia), U.S. Army Strategic Studies Institute
This workshop was convened by Dr. Michael Fratantuono and Dr. David Sarcone of Dickinson College
In this video, Dr. Stephen Blank discusses in detail the difficulties of inter-agency coordination and international cooperation using the New Silk Road Project as an example.