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Input, Interaction & Output

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by sarah ahmad on 6 December 2012

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Transcript of Input, Interaction & Output

Long’s Interaction Hypothesis How do we acquire language? INPUT HYPOTHESIS A necessary (but not sufficient) condition to move from stage i to stage i + 1 is that the acquirer understand input that contains i + 1, where "understand" means that the acquirer is focused on the meaning and not the form of the message. Krashen’s Input Hypothesis the Input Hypothesis is central to all of acquisition - L2 acquisition depends on comprehensible input INPUT, INTERACTION & OUTPUT HYPOTHESIS IN SLA “negotiation for meaning, and especially negotiation work that triggers interaction adjustments by the NS or more competent interlocutor, facilitates acquisition because it connects input, internal learner capacities, particularly selective attention, and output in productive ways” OUTLINE:
1) INPUT HYPOTHESIS
2) INTERACTION HYPOTHESIS
3) OUTPUT HYPOTHESIS How do we move from one stage to another? i to i+1??? We acquire only when we understand Many researches later challenge his hypothesis by supplying abundant evidence indicating that though necessary, comprehensible input alone is insufficient for L2 acquisition (Swain 1981,1991; Harley & Hart, 1997; Harley & Swain, 1984, etc.). They argue that processing of comprehension is different from processing of production. And the ability to understand meaning conveyed by sentences differs from the ability to use linguistic system to express meaning (Swain, 1985, 1988; Sharwood Smith,1986; Crookes, 1991). When input is negotiated and learners produce output in interaction, they selectively “take in” portions of comprehensible input and choose correct linguistic form to express themselves.
This process makes it possible for the learners to internalize what they have learnt and experienced. Corder (1976) - input & intake huge amount of evidence in foreign language learning practice.
It is convincingly argued that L2 acquisition will not occur even if with input at the right quantity and quality but without being internalized by the learners and becoming part of their interlanguage system. Gass & Torres (2005): A learner’s attentional resources a particular discrepancy between what he or she
knows about the L2 and what the L2 really is an area of the L2 about which the learner has little or no information OUTPUT HYPOTHESIS language 1995: she stated that output might stimulate learners to move from the semantic, open-ended, nondeterministic, strategic processing prevalent in comprehension to the complete grammatical processing needed for accurate production development of SYNTAX and MORPHOLOGY Gass (2001): 4 functions of output in L2 testing hypothesis about the structures and meanings of L2 receiving crucial feedback for the verification of these hypotheses
forcing a shift from more meaning-based processing of the second language to a more syntactic mode developing fluency & automaticity in interlanguage production
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