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Body and Behavior: The Nervous Sytem, Brain, and Endocrine System.

Students will develop an understanding addressing how the brain processes information and how the body adapts to the demands of its enviornment.
by Andrew Cantrell on 18 February 2014

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Transcript of Body and Behavior: The Nervous Sytem, Brain, and Endocrine System.

The Brain
&
Nervous System
Assessment
1. List and describe the parts of the neuron
The Spinal Cord
nerves that run up and down the length of the back and transmit most messages between the body and brain.
The Brain
The Nervous System Can be broken down into two parts:
The Central Nervous System
See all of those thin lines branching off the spinal cord?
They make up the peripheral nervous system (PNS)
What are the two parts of the central nervous system?
Fact check:
What protects your nerves from being damaged?
2. What is the difference between afferent and efferent neurons? What are interneurons?
4. Make sure all vocabulary for Section 1 is complete
3. What would it be like if you had no autonomic nervous system? Write a one paragraph description of what life might be like.
Studying The Brain
Question: How many brains do you really have?
Answer:
Only one (duh). However it is divided into 3 parts: the hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain
Lets Review the brain with, well the Brain
Have you ever been told you have half a brain?
How Do Psychologists study the brain?
brain plasticity
the brain's ability to change at any age – for better or worse. As you would imagine, this flexibility plays an incredibly important role in our brain development (or decline) and in shaping our distinct personalities.
One of the most famous examples is this guy.
Phineas Gage
Stimulation
Lesions
Accidents
Psychologists also learn from accidents. Many attribute the birth of modern neuroscience to this guy:
Phineas Gage
The Endocrine System - a chemical communication system, using hormones, by which messages are sent through the bloodstream.
Ways that hormones affect you:
growth of bodily structures such as muscles and bones.
your body's metabolic processes i.e. how much energy you have to perform actions.
Like being a boy or a girl? Thank the hormone testosterone. Boys have more, girls have less.
Directed by your hypothalamus, the pituitary gland is the master gland. It monitors levels of hormones in your blood and sends out messages to correct imbalances.

produces the hormone thyroxin. Too little thyroxin makes people feel lazy and lethargic i.e. fat this is known as hypothyroidism.
What do you think happens if your thyroid gland produces too much thyroxin?
Hyperthyroidism
- you become overactive, have trouble sleeping, and lose weight.
Primary motor cortex
Primary somatosensory
Become active when you are angry or frightened. Releases epinephrine or norepinephrine into the bloodstream.
Assessment
1. What is the difference between a hormone and a neurotransmitter?
2. What are three ways the endocrine system affects behavior?
3. List and describe two ways the thyroid gland malfunctions.
Lets talk about nads. Boys and girls both have them. In boys they are called testes in girls they are called ovaries.
Ovaries produce eggs and the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. These hormones affect physical and sexual development.
The testes produce sperm and the male hormone testosterone. Women possess low levels of testosterone just as men possess low levels of estrogen.
Dendrites
Axon
Axon Terminal
Cell Body
Myelin Sheath
thin branch-like structures that receive signals, usually from other neurons
Uses chemical processes to interpret the data from the dendrites
After the data is interpreted, it is sent out via the axon
a protective covering around the axon which enables it to send info faster and more efficiently
the end of the neuron, where information is sent elsewhere
the cells that make up the entirety of the nervous system
we have roughly 100,000,000,000 (
100 billion
) of them
Humans have a minimum of 100,000,000,000,000 (
100 trillion
) neural connections
Synapse
(up close)
Synapse
Action potential
an electric pulse which travels down the axon and relays information
Neurotransmitter

Acetylcholine





Norepinephrine




Dopamine




Endorphins



Serotonin
Effects

which seems to involved in
muscle movement, memory, and REM sleep
. Neat facts: Botox limits the effect of this chemical resulting in temporary paralysis. This chemical also seems to be lacking in people suffering from Alzheimer’s


puts the body on “high alert”
to prepare for stressful situations. Most amphetamines increase the level of production of this chemical to potentially dangerous levels.


also involved

movement, learning and memory
.
Schizophrenics and Parkinson’s patients usually have problems with dopamine production


the bodies natural pain control and pleasure producer
. Narcotics mimic the effects of endorphins but also cause the body to stop making them

emotion
and
mood
also
hunger
and
sleep.
The chemical most involved with people suffering from depression and anxiety disorders. So Zoloft and all that stuff allow for more effective use of this chemical.
Neurotransmitters
Reuptake
The sending neuron will “swallow back” some of the neurotransmitter not allowing it to continue the message down the line
chemical messengers that pass in between neurons
Central Nervous System
Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Brain
&
Spinal Cord
"Command Center"
for the nervous system
Everything else. Transports messages of CNS throughout the body
Voluntary movements
(walking, putting your head on your desk, etc.)
Involuntary or
Automatic
Actions
The body's arousal system
(Heart rate, breathing, digestion, etc.)
The body's calming system
The Nervous System
The Limbic System
The Cerebral Cortex
Temporal Lobe
hearing, memory and understanding language (only on left side- Wernicke’s area)
Parietal Lobe
taste and touch information
Occipital Lobe
vision
Frontal Lobe
judgment, emotional control, voluntary movement, and expressing language (only on left side- Broca’s area)
involved in emotion, hunger, thirst, and reactions to temperature.
Hypothalamus
controls the other glands throughout the body
Pituitary Gland
The Hindbrain
Pons
involved in sleep, arousal, and facial expression
Medulla
regulates vital functions such as breathing and blood flow
Cerebellum
Involved in balance, coordination, and some voluntary movement
handles extreme emotion and sets emotional priorities
Amygdala
memory center of brain, particularly long term memory
Hippocampus
of the brain
Thalamus
Involved in the processes of life
The Brain
With animals, scientists can cut away part of the brain to see what behaviors may change.
By electrically stimulating part of the brain and recording what if any behaviors are altered.
We use machines that scan the brain in different ways to give us an indication of what parts of the brain are active for certain functions
EEG
- Electroencephalogram
MRI
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging
fMRI
- functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
PET - Positron Emission Tomography
CAT - Computerized Axial Tomograpy
MRI
fMRI
Scanning
https://www.biodigitalhuman.com/
Full CT Scan w/contrast
These nerves are the thickness of a pencil and branch beyond the spinal cord out to various organs in the body. They transmit information to and from the organs.
We're late for graduation!
the nerves that travel up and down the back and transmit most messages
What would happen if your nerves were damaged?
What would life be like if you had no Cerebellum? What message was Joey Ramone trying to convey in Teenage Lobotomy about the youth of America? (1 paragraph)
Reflection:
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