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The Hittites Empire

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by Elyse Politica on 7 January 2013

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Transcript of The Hittites Empire

The Hittite Empire The Hittite empire was located on the Anatolian peninsula (partially in the Fertile Crescent), and covered most of modern day Turkey and Assyria when it was most powerful. Their kingdom was centered at Hattusa, which was in the northern part of Anatolia. During the eighteenth century B.C., the Hittites built one of the greatest empires in the Middle East and were the first Indo-European people to develop a civilization. The Hittites saw the advantages of Mesopotamia and their civilization so they eventually began to follow some of their ways and customs. For example, they adapted the Mesopotamian form of writing, which is cuneiform script, the earliest form of writing that we know of. The Hittites were bordered by the Assyrian empire in Mesopotamia, by the Mediterranean Sea and were fairly close to the Egyptian empire. The Hittite king, Labarna, first established the Hittite empire in about 1680 B.C.. When his heir ,Labarna II, also known as Hattusili I, came to power, he made the empire even larger and conquered more land. After Hattusili, Mursili I, his heir, also expanded the empire and during his rule, the Hittite kingdom was the largest that it had ever been; it stretched all across central Anatolia down to the Mediterranean Sea. The empire was divided into three different parts: the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and the New Kingdom. During the Old Kingdom (about 1680-1500 B.C.), Labarna had just conquered Hattusa and they were beginning their empire. Through the Middle Kingdom (about 1500-1400 B.C.), the rulers had changed and there became a new form of aristocracy. In the New Kingdom (about 1400-1139 B.C.), the Hittite empire was very powerful and was a large rival of Babylon and Egypt. However, the empire was weakened and attacks from the Sea people caused their decline.
The Sea people were groups that attacked the eastern parts of Egypt, Syria, Palestine, and Anatolia. They traveled through the Mediterranean Sea and waged wars of other civilizations, but the Hittite Kingdom was hit the worst of all. The Hittites were the first people to melt iron and forge it into tools and weapons. The iron allowed the objects to become sharper and more durable than items made from Bronze. The Hittites used this iron to trade with other peoples around the Mediterranean and into Egypt. Because of the Hittites' discovery, the Bronze Age came to an end and the Iron Age began in 1500 B.C. www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sumerian_script The Hittite religion was polytheistic, the belief in more that one god. Their most powerful and important god was Tarhunt, the god of storms; he is said to have ruled the heavens with the sun god, Arinna. Overall, there are hundreds of gods that the Hittites believed in.
The Hittite gods were portrayed as humans, which was different from other religions where they are shown as animals. The gods were said to have watched over the people and if they did something wrong, they were be punished by them. The head of the Hittite government was the king. After him was whomever he appointed as his heir, followed by the Gal Mesedi (Chief of the Royal Bodyguards). The Gal Mesedi protected the king and were very highly regarded; they were usually part of the royal family. Handicrafts, especially metalworking, were common jobs in the Hittite society and were considered rather high ranking occupations. www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarhunt The Hittites were also famous for their skill in building and using chariots. These chariots gave them an advantage in their military when fighting. http://history-world.org/hittite_empire_to_c.htm http://www.mapsofworld.com/world-ancient-history/hittite-empire.html http://www.ancient.eu.com/hittite/ Bibliography:
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