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CNA for dummies: Oral Cavity

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by Tondelaya Westbrooks on 18 October 2012

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Transcript of CNA for dummies: Oral Cavity

By: Sammie, Laya, and Kayla. Oral Cavity! Oral care procedures are used for patients who are unconscious or who are not able to eat or drink. Keeping the mouth and teeth clean will protect your patient’s oral health and allow quicker recovery by preventing infections from developing. Definition of Oral Hygiene! Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth clean and healthy by brushing and flossing to prevent tooth decay and gum disease. Toothbrush
Toothpaste
Dental Floss
Mouthwash
Towel
Tongue Depressor
Gloves
Denture Cup
Basin
Sponge swabs
Dental Adhesive Tools You May Need: (with a small head) (as needed) (for elderly & unconscious) (for dentures) (for dentures) Before You Get Started! Wash your hands and put on a pair of gloves. Greet your patient, and explain what you are going to do in order to allow the patient to assist if they are able. Remember to grab the necessary tools! Steps To Take: How to care for the Unconscious Patients Tools: Gloves
Tooth brush
Toothpaste
Tongue depressors
Towel 1. Drape a towel over the patient’s chest. Raise the bed to allow you to comfortably work. Raise the head to an angle no greater than 30 degrees.
2. Gently turn the patient’s head toward you, and open the mouth using a tongue depressor in one hand.
3. Using a toothbrush, clean the patient’s mouth including teeth, gums, and tongue. Be careful to use only a small amount of toothpaste to prevent excess from being swallowed.
4. When you have completed brushing, suction saliva and toothpaste from the patient’s mouth. Assist your patient back into a comfortable position. Dispose of gloves and wash your hands. Tools: How to care for a conscious patient Gloves
Towels
Toothbrush
Floss
Towel
Small cup Steps to Take: 1. Wash hands, put on a pair of gloves, and place a towel over the patient’s chest. Raise the head to an angle no greater than 30 degrees.
2. Floss you’re patient’s teeth. Then by using a toothbrush, clean the patient’s mouth including teeth, gums, and tongue. Be careful to use only a small amount of toothpaste to prevent excess from being swallowed.
3. As you brush the patient’s teeth, inspect the mouth for signs of infection such as lesions or abscesses.
4. If the patient is able, allow him or her to take a small amount of water into the mouth and swish to remove remaining toothpaste. Otherwise, you will need to suction saliva and toothpaste from the mouth.
5. Assist your patient back into a comfortable position. Dispose of gloves and wash your hands. Caring for Dentures Tweet Patients who wear dentures may need your assistance in cleaning and caring for dentures. Dentures are often costly, and replacement may be difficult for your patient. If dentures are not cared for properly, they can lead to painful infections of the mouth that are difficult to treat. Before you begin, wash your hands thoroughly and obtain all necessary supplies. Greet your patient, and explain that you are going to help them clean their dentures. If the patient is able, have them remove the dentures and give them to you. If the patient requires assistance, remove the dentures carefully, starting with the upper denture by gently moving the denture up and down to break the seal, and then gently sliding the denture out of the mouth. How to care for Dentures Steps to Follow: 1. Take the dentures to the sink, line the basin with a washcloth, and fill the basin partway with warm water, but do not place the dentures in the sink.
2. Using a toothbrush, clean the surface of the dentures as if you were brushing your own teeth. Work with one denture at a time, and use a small amount of toothpaste or denture cleaner. Be sure to clean the areas where the denture comes in contact with the gums or roof of the mouth.
3. Rinse the denture thoroughly and place it into a clean denture cup filled with cool water to prevent contaminating it. Repeat this process with the other denture.
4. Assist the patient with proper oral care using sponge swabs and mouthwash. Look into the mouth for signs of infection such as lesions. If you find anything concerning, do not insert the dentures, and immediately report it to the nurse.
5. After the procedure is complete, assist the patient in re-inserting the dentures. Be sure to provide dental adhesive as necessary. Ensure your patient is in a comfortable position in bed. Remove your gloves and dispose of them properly. Wash your hands carefully. Proper care of dentures will help your patient to remain independent and to enjoy eating. Take the time to ensure your patient’s mouth is healthy to prevent infection or complications. Tools: Basin
toothbrush
toothpaste/denture cleaner
Denture cup
Denture adhesive How to Floss Effectively! How to brush properly 1. Cut off a piece of floss about 18 inches in length.

2. Wrap most of the floss around the middle finger of one hand. Leave a space of about 2 inches free and wind the remaining floss around the middle finger of the other hand.

3. Use your thumbs and forefingers to hold the floss. Keep it taunt and stand in front of a mirror. Use a gentle rubbing motion to slide the floss between your teeth.

4. Focus on one tooth and glide the floss towards the gum line to create a C shape. Go beneath the gum line and stop when resistance is felt

5. Work the floss up and down to remove plague and pieces of food. Repeat Steps 1 to 5 to properly floss all teeth. Unwind more floss as the piece you're using becomes dirty.

6. Wind the dirty piece up onto the other middle finger and unravel a several inches of clean floss. Repeat Steps 1 to 5 to properly floss all teeth. 1. Use a good toothbrush. Your toothbrush should have soft nylon bristles and a small head. Soft bristles are gentler on your gums and will flex more easily to reach between the teeth while a small head allows you to reach all areas of your mouth.

2. Wet your toothbrush slightly

3. Squeeze a pea-sized amount of toothpaste onto your toothbrush. Your toothpaste should contain fluoride. If brushing is painful, switch to toothpaste formulated for sensitive teeth.

4. Try to concentrate on one tooth at a time. As you go around your mouth, try to focus on one tooth for a few seconds. When that's done, move on to the next one

5. Start with the front of your teeth. Hold the brush so that it's parallel to your lips, then tilt it upward by about 45 degrees. Start with your top front teeth, and work around each side of your mouth in a back-and-forth circular motion, brushing the outer side of each top tooth. Move to the bottom row of teeth, and tilt the toothbrush up by about 45 degrees. Work around each side of your mouth, brushing the outer side of each bottom tooth.

6. Wiggle the bristles along the gum line. This is extremely important, as gum disease starts here. Brush gently to avoid damaging your gums. Pressing harder does more damage than good. Make sure to get behind the molars at the back, where bacteria like to hide.

7. Brush your molars. Position the toothbrush so that it's perpendicular to your lips, or so that the bristles are resting on top of your bottom molars. Work the toothbrush in an in-and-out motion, and move from the back of your mouth to the front. Repeat on the other side of your mouth. When the bottom teeth are clean, flip the toothbrush over and work on the top molars.

8. Brush the "inside" of your teeth. After you've brushed the top of your molars, flip the brush so that the bristles are resting along the inner side of one of your back bottom molars. Angle the bristles toward the gums a bit, and brush each molar, moving from the back of your mouth to the front. Work sides, top and bottom.

9. When you reach your front bottom teeth, tip the toothbrush so that the head of the toothbrush is pointing downward, toward your tongue, and brush each tooth. For your front top teeth, the head of the toothbrush should point to the roof of your mouth

10. Gently brush your tongue.

11. Rinse out your mouth.

12. Rinse your toothbrush

13. Use mouthwash. Take a small sip of mouthwash, swish it in your mouth, and spit it out. Be careful not to swallow any. Groups at risk

· People living in areas of material and social deprivation have much higher levels of tooth decay. They are more likely to have diets high in sugary foods and drinks and they brush their teeth less often. Vulnerable groups of society also have poorer oral health and less access to oral health care services. For example, children and adults with a learning disability and people with mental illness tend to have fewer teeth, more untreated decay and more periodontal disease than the general population.

· Other groups at risk of poor oral health include people with disability, those in long-term institutional care (such as residential homes, psychiatric hospitals and prisons), homeless people and some refugee and asylum seeker groups. Some minority ethnic groups may face an increased risk of oral disease because they are more likely to be living in areas of disadvantage, and some groups may encounter language and cultural barriers to accessing care and advice.

· Elderly people living in residential care tend to have a poorer diet than those living in their own homes. Adolescents, especially young men from semi-skilled or unskilled manual backgrounds, have been identified as a group in which there is a dramatic reduction in dental visits in the transition from childhood to adult life. Children, expectant mothers and women of childbearing age require special consideration. Other vulnerable groups include people requiring palliative care and people undergoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy or a bone marrow transplant.

· The health of periodontal tissues, the mucous membrane lining the mouth, and the bone supporting the teeth can be compromised when teeth and gums are not brushed regularly and dental plaque accumulates. Oral hygiene practices are best learnt in early childhood as part of body hygiene and cleanliness.

· Tooth decay occurs when acid is produced by bacteria found in the plaque on the surface of the teeth. This results in the loss of some of the tooth calcium and phosphate minerals. This demineralization happens every time sugary foods and drinks are consumed. Once the plaque acid has been neutralized some of the minerals can be deposited back into the teeth - a process known as demineralization. Fluoride tips the balance in favor of this 'repair'. Increasing the availability of fluoride can therefore help prevent tooth decay.

· Tobacco use, especially smoking, increases the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease. It is by far the greatest risk factor for oral cancer. Although less harmful than smoking, the chewing of tobacco products, common in some Asian communities, is also associated with an increased risk of oral cancer. Excessive alcohol consumption, particularly spirits, is a further risk factor for oral cancer, especially when combined with smoking and a poor diet.

· Heavy drinkers and smokers are 30 times more likely to develop oral cancer than non-smokers and non-drinkers

· Effects: such as oral thrush, trench mouth, bad breath and others are considered as effect of poor dental hygiene.

· Good oral hygiene results in a mouth that looks and smells healthy. This means: Your teeth are clean and free of debris, Gums are pink and do not hurt or bleed when you brush or floss, Bad breath is not a constant problem

· In between regular visits to the dentist, there are simple steps that each of us can take to greatly decrease the risk of developing tooth decay, gum disease and other dental problems. These instructions include: Brush your teeth at least twice a day or after every meal, with fluoride toothpaste, Floss your teeth at least once a day, Watch your diet. Avoid sugar and limit snacks between meals Conditions:

· Oral thrush is a condition in which the fungus Candida albicans accumulates on the lining of your mouth.

· Oral thrush causes creamy white lesions, usually on your tongue or inner cheeks. The lesions can be painful and may bleed slightly when you scrape them. Sometimes oral thrush may spread to the roof of your mouth, your gums, your tonsils or the back of your throat.

· Although oral thrush can affect anyone, it's more likely to occur in babies and in people who wear dentures, use inhaled corticosteroids or have compromised immune systems. Oral thrush is a minor problem if you're healthy, but if you have a weakened immune system, symptoms of oral thrush may be more severe and difficult to control.

· Trech Mouth: Trench mouth is a severe form of gingivitis that causes painful, infected, bleeding gums and ulcerations. Although trench mouth is rare today in developed nations, it's common in developing countries that have poor nutrition and poor living conditions.

· Trench mouth is formally known as Vincent's stomatitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG) and necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG). Trench mouth earned its nickname because of its prevalence among soldiers who were stuck in the trenches during World War I without the means to take care of their teeth properly.



· Tooth decay is the process that results in a cavity (dental caries). It occurs when bacteria in your mouth make acids that eat away at a tooth. If not treated, tooth decay can cause pain, infection, and tooth loss. Tips for kids:

· Make it exciting! Try making a game out of it, or reward them for brushing their teeth with no fuss.

· Get in a routine. Read a book, watch a movie, etc. and when that activity is over its time to brush teeth.

· Set a good example by taking care of your teeth along with your child.



Tips for Elderly:

· Don’t make them feel helpless.

· Be sure to make sure they know what you are doing, who you are, and why you are doing what you’re doing.

· Let them do it themselves, if possible.

· Always make sure everything is sterile.
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