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Childhood Autism Rating Scale -2

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by Amanda Beck on 1 November 2012

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Transcript of Childhood Autism Rating Scale -2

Amanda Beck Childhood Autism
Rating Scale 2 Review The authors of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale created it to help identify children with autism and determine symptom severity through quantifiable ratings based on direct observation. When the CARS2 came out, it became more responsive to individuals on the "high functioning" end of the autism spectrum. Purpose: * Childhood Autism Rating Scale, Second Edition (CARS2)
* Authors: Eric Schopler, PhD, Mary E. Van Bourgondien, PhD, Glenna Janette Wellman, PhD, and Steven R. Love, PhD
* 2010 -- Western Psychological Services
* Administration: Completed through observations. Once the observations have been completed, the forms take approximately 5 to 10 minutes
About the CARS2 Both the Standard Version and the High Functioning Scale have 15 items that are to rated after observations. The scale runs from 1 to 4, however there are also half step increments if needed. General Description * The CARS2 come from a revision of the original CARS, which was developed in North Carolina to help evaluate the children participating in their TEACCH program (Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication handicapped children
* The classification system are behaviorally based observations, and provides behavioral descriptors to be observed. Development Standardization Reliability and Validity The rating scale can: * Be an initial aid in classifying Autism.
* Distinguish between Autism and developmental disabilities
* Distinguish between mid-to-moderate and severe Autism
Forms * Standard Version Rating Booklet
(CARS2-ST):Equivalent to the original
CARS; used with individuals younger than
6 years of age or those with
communication difficulties.
* High Functioning Version Rating Booklet
(CARS2-HF): An alternative for assessing verbally fluent individuals, 6 years of
age and older, with IQ scores about 80.
* Questionnaire for Parents or Caregivers
(CARS2-QPC): An unscored scale that
gathers information for use in making
CARS2-ST and CARS2-HF ratings.

Prices Kit: Includes 25 Standard Version Rating Books, 25 High Functioning Rating Books, 26 Questionaires for Parents of Caregivers and the manual -- $158
25 Standard Version forms - $37
25 High Functioning forms - $37
25 Questionnaires for Parents - $37
Manual - $74 CARS2-ST items
1. Relating to People
2. Imitation
3. Emotional Response
4. Body Use
5. Object Use
6. Adaptation to Change
7. Visual Response
8. Listening Response
9. Taste, Smell and Touch Response and Use
10. Fear or Nervousness
11. Verbal Communication
12. Nonverbal Communication
13. Activity Level
14. Level and Consistency of Intellectual Response
15. General Impressions CARS2-HF Items 1. Social-Emotional Understanding
2. Emotional Expression and Regulation of Emotions
3. Relating to People
4. Body Use
5. Object use in Play
6. Adaptation to Change/Restricted Interests
7. Visual Response
8. Listening Response
9. Taste, Smell and Touch Response and Use
10. Fear or Anxiety
11. Verbal Communication
12. Nonverbal Communication
13. Thinking/Cognitive Integration Skills
14. Level and Consistency of Intellectual Response
15. General Impression
User Qualifications Appropriate for use in schools, clinics and intervention programs.
"Professionals such as physicians, special educators, school psychologists, speech pathologists, and audiologists, who have had exposure to and training about autis, can acquire--through relatively brief training--the ability to make valid ratings. Administration and Scoring CARS2-ST Observations should be made from various settings, including testings centers, classrooms, and parental reports.
The Questionnaire for Parents of Caregivers can be integrated with observations to help in the observation scoring.
Scoring: the ratings from each category are transferred to the scoring summary page.The ratings are summed to get the total raw score. Indicate the severity group based on age.
Use the raw score to calculate a t-score a percentile. CARS2-HF While observations are also encouraged to be made across settings, items 2, 8, 9, and 10 need information related to the pervasiveness of symptoms across settings.
Scoring: the ratings from each category are transferred to the scoring summary page.The ratings are summed to get the total raw score. Indicate the severity group based on age.
Use the raw score to calculate a t-score a percentile. Interpretive Categories Associated with CARS2-ST or CARS2-HF T score:
70+ Extreme level of Autism-related symptoms compared to those with an autism diagnosis.
60-70 Very high level of Autism-related symptoms compared to those with an autism diagnosis.
55-59 High level of Autism-related symptoms compared to those with an autism diagnosis.
45-54 Average level of Autism-related symptoms compared to those with an autism diagnosis.
40-44 Low level of Autism-related symptoms compared to those with an autism diagnosis.
25-39 Very low level of Autism-related symptoms compared to those with an autism diagnosis.
0-25 Minimal Autism-related symptoms compared to those with an autism diagnosis. CARS Sample:
The standardization of the original sample came from the original CARS Scale. 1606 representative individuals from the TEACCH centers in North Carolina. The sample contained more males than females, however age was evenly distributed.

CARS2-ST Verification Sample:
The verification sample contained 1034 individuals with a diagnosis of autism being seen in various clinic across the United States.

CARS2-HF Development Sample:
Individuals had a variety of clinical diagnoses (high functioning autism, Asperger's, PDD-NOS, ADHD, Learning Disorders, and other internalizing and externalizing clinical disorders. Reliability * Internal Consistency Reliability: CARS2-ST, .93; CARS2-HF, .96
* Inter-rater Reliability: CARS2-ST, .51; CARS2-HF, .73
* Test-Retest Reliability: .88 Validity Relationship to Clinical Diagnoses:
* CARS-2ST
Total Raw Score 30+ = 716/818 had Autism Diagnosis
Total Raw Score 29.5 or lower = 95/702 had Diagnosis
* CARS-2HF
Total Raw Score 28+ = 465/520 on Autism Spectrum Scale (Autism, Asperger's, PDD-NOS)
27.5 or lower = 109/474
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