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Mental Retardation

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by Alex Krull on 1 March 2011

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Transcript of Mental Retardation

Mental Retardation Definition "Mental retardation is a developmental disability that is marked by lower-than-normal intelligence and limited daily living skills."(Newton, 515)

It is generally a lifelong condition. Facts About 2.5 to 3% of the total population are mentally retarded.
Mental retardation can appear in children under the age of 18, even at birth.
Gender and race are not linked to mental retardation.
Approximately 6 to 7.5 million mentally retarded people live in the U.S. Mental retardation is something to be concerned about worldwide and should be socially accepted. Categories The categories of mental retardation are based on severity:

Mild
Moderate
Severe
Profound Good Bad Mild Mental Retardation Standards Mental retardation is defined by two standards.
level of intelligence (IQ)
adaptive skills (skills you use during life: social skills, speaking, etc.) Approximately 85% of the mentally retarded population is in the mildly retarded category.
IQ range: 50-75 Moderate Mental Retardation About 10% of the mentally retarded population is considered moderately retarded.
IQ range: 35-55 Severe Mental Retardation About 3-4% of the mentally retarded population is severely retarded.
IQ range: 20-40 Profound Mental Retardation Only 1-2% of the mentally retarded population has profound mental retardation.
IQ range: <20-25 Causes A person is only classified as mentally retarded if they show symptoms and signs prior to age 18. (mental Retardation, 410) Mental retardation can be caused by alcohol and drug abuse during pregnancy.
It can also be caused by heredity because the genes in the body can interfere with the development of the brain.
Some birth defects affecting the head, brain, and the central nervous system have mental retardation as a symptom. Causes
infections
chromosomal abnormalities
environment
genetic abnormalities
metabolic
nutritional
toxic Diagnosis Some families in America don't realize their child is mentally retarded at first.

"Diagnosis of mental retardation first requires determining that a person has a serious impairment." (Schuelein, 410) Complications
inability to care for oneself
inability to interact with others appropriately
social isolation Symptoms
continued infant-like behavior
decreased learning ability
failure to meet the markers of intellectual development
inability to meet educational demands at school
lack of curiosity children also learn to sit up, walk, talk, and perform other simple tasks later than average. Complications
inability to care for self
inability to interact with others appropriately
social isolation Symptoms
continued infant-like behavior
decreased learning ability
failure to meet the markers of intellectual development
inability to meet educational demands at school
lack of curiosity Childhood illnesses and injuries
Chicken pox, measles, hyperthyroidism,whooping cough, and Hib disease may cause mental retardation if not treated properly. Expectations
"Many people lead productive lives and function on their own; others need a structured environment to be most successful."(Kaneshiro, page 3) Treatment is basically used so the person's potential is at its fullest. This includes special education. Genetic Factors
fragile x syndrome
Down syndrome A boy with Down syndrome assembling a shelf. Down syndrome is a common form of mental retardation due to genetic factors. People around the world have said that the term "mentally retarded" has become offensive, like the terms idiot, imbecile, and moron which were once used by doctors to describe varying degrees of mental retardation. Autism Autism is a learning disability that has become very common in America. The cause is currently unknown, but autism has become culturally acceptable. Autism Spectrum
Asperger's syndrome
PDD-NOS
Hyperlexia
few aspects of ADHD "Approximately 10 percent of persons with austistic disorder also have some special skills in areas such as math calculations, art, or music." (Wilson, 53)

Some autistic individuals are also mentally retarded. Mentally handicapped people and their families need varying levels of support services to help them successfully live in a community. "Only people with the most severe mental retardation, who require constant care, are likely to live permanently in institutions."(Schuelein, 411) In conclusion, we, as a society who may have mentally retarded relatives or friends should come together and embrace the qualities, differences and blessings that these individuals bring to all of our lives. By: Alex Krull
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