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Copy of Code of Hammurabi vs Mosaic Law

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by Halina Ryba on 24 June 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Code of Hammurabi vs Mosaic Law

Code of Hammurabi vs Mosaic Law
Since the discovery of the Code of Hammurabi in 1901, there has been much controversy that the ideas put forth by Moses in the Old Testament on how to govern a nation were plagiarized from the Code of Hammurabi. The truth be it there is in fact many similarities in the laws and punishments between both sets of laws. Both the Code of Hammurabi and the Mosaic Law contain similar laws and punishments in the areas of:
Witness Testimony
Stealing of Animals
Slavery
Rules of Marriage
Adultery & Sex
Inheritance/ Disinheritance
Kidnapping
Similarities In Laws & Punishment
Introduction to the Code of Hammurabi
Introduction to Mosaic Law
vs.
Now that you have a brief understanding of the Code of Hammurabi and the Mosaic Law let's further explore these influential pieces of law.
Kidnapping

3. If a man has borne false witness in a trial, or has not established the statement that he has made, if that case be a capital trial, that man shall be put to death.
4. If he has borne false witness in a civil law case, he shall pay the damages in that suit.




Witness Testimony
The Code of Hammurabi states that:

Stealing
The Code of Hammurabi states that:
Eye to Eye
"If a man happens to meet in a town a virgin pledged to be married and rapes her, you shall take both of them to the gate of that town and stone them to death-the girl because she was in a town and did not scream for help, and the man because he violated another man's wife. You must purge the evil from among you. But if out in the country a man happens to meet a girl pledged to be married and rapes her, only the man who has done this shall die. Do nothing to the girl; she has committed no sin deserving death. This case is like that of someone who attacks and murders his neighbor, for the man found the girl out in the country, and though the betrothed girl screamed, there was no one to rescue her." Deut. 22:23-27
Laws of Marriage
Code of Hammurabi states that:

Sex & Adultery
Code of Hammurabi states that:
Punishment for Abusing Parents
Similarities In Language
From Where Do These Similarities Come About
Anyone who kidnaps another and either sells him or still has him when he is caught must be put to death." Exodus 21:16
"If a man is caught kidnapping one of his brother Israelites and treats him as a slave or sells him, the kidnapper must die. You must purge the evil from among you." Deut. 24:7
The Mosaic Law states that:
The Code of Hammurabi states that:

14.If any one steal the minor son of another, he shall be put to death
E8. If any one steal cattle or sheep, or an ass, or a pig or a goat, if it belong to a god or to the court, the thief shall pay thirtyfold therefor; if they belonged to a freed man of the king he shall pay tenfold; if the thief has nothing with which to pay he shall be put to death.

The Code of Hammurabi states that:
The Mosaic Law states that:
Mosaic Code:
Deuteronomy 19
16 If a malicious witness takes the stand to accuse someone of a crime, 17 the two people involved in the dispute must stand in the presence of the LORD before the priests and the judges who are in office at the time. 18 The judges must make a thorough investigation, and if the witness proves to be a liar, giving false testimony against a fellow Israelite, 19 then do to the false witness as that witness intended to do to the other party. You must purge the evil from among you. 20 The rest of the people will hear of this and be afraid, and never again will such an evil thing be done among you.
The Mosaic Law states that:
Exodus 22
1 “Whoever steals an ox or a sheep and slaughters it or sells it must pay back five head of cattle for the ox and four sheep for the sheep. 2 “If a thief is caught breaking in at night and is struck a fatal blow, the defender is not guilty of bloodshed; 3 but if it happens after sunrise, the defender is guilty of bloodshed. “Anyone who steals must certainly make restitution, but if they have nothing, they must be sold to pay for their theft.”

130. If a man violate the wife (betrothed or child-wife) of another man, who has never known a man, and still lives in her father's house, and sleep with her and be surprised, this man shall be put to death, but the wife is blameless.
131. If a man bring a charge against one's wife, but she is not surprised with another man, she must take an oath and then may return to her house.
The Code of Hammurabi stated that:
The Mosaic Law states that:
129. If a man's wife be surprised (in flagrante delicto) with another man, both shall be tied and thrown into the water, but the husband may pardon his wife and the king his slaves.

Mosaic Law states that:
195. If a son strike his father, his hands shall be hewn off.
196. If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out.
197. If he break another man's bone, his bone shall be broken.
198. If he put out the eye of a freed man, or break the bone of a freed man, he shall pay one gold mina.
199. If he put out the eye of a man's slave, or break the bone of a man's slave, he shall pay one-half of its value.
200. If a man knock out the teeth of his equal, his teeth shall be knocked out.


The Mosaic Law states that:
"When you enter the land and plant any kind of fruit tree, regard its fruit as forbidden. For three years you are to consider it forbidden; it must not be eaten. In the forth year all its fruit will be holy, an offering of praise to the Lord. But in the fifth year you may eat its fruit. In this way your harvest will be increased. I am the Lord your God." Leviticus 19:23-25
Mosaic Law states that:
60. If any one give over a field to a gardener, for him to plant it as a garden, if he work at it, and care for it for four years, in the fifth year the owner and the gardener shall divide it, the owner taking his part in charge.
"If man who are fighting hit a pregnant woman and she gives birth prematurely but there is no serious injury, the offender must be fined whatever the woman's husband demands and the court allows. But if there is serious injury, you are to take life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burn for burn, wound for wound, bruise for bruise."Exodus 21:22-25
"If anyone injures his neighbor, whatever he has done must be done to him: fracture for fracture, eye for eye, toothe for tooth. As he has injured the other, so he is to be injured." Leviticus 24:19-20
"Show no pity: life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot." Deut. 19:21
King Hammurabi bowing down before the God of Sun, Shamash
Mosaic Law
THE TEN COMMANDMENTS
Unlike in today's society where kidnappers are simply sent to jail for a lenthy period of imprisonment, both codes have enacted the punishment for kidnapping to be the death sentence.
One apparent similarity amongst these codes is that they both punish individuals who testify falsely by making them suffer the punishment that they hoped to evoke on the alleged criminal. The Mosaic Law states that you should do to the false witness as that witness intended to do to the other party, while the Code of Hammurabi states that in the case of a civil law case the false witness shall pay the damages that the accused was supposed to. In both situations, the idea of punishing the false witness by succumbing him or her to the original punishment is evident.
Both codes emphasis the principle of restitution; compensating the victim(s) for one's action. However, the Code of Hammurabi, which exerts far more harsh penalties than the more leanient Mosaic Code, states it will in fact sentence a thief to death if the thief has nothing to pay back to the victim, while the Mosaic Code states the thief will simply be sold to pay for his or her theft. Both codes strongly believed that stealing was naturally wrong and was worthy of death.
Both codes emphasis the principle of punishing individuals on the term of eye for eye and tooth for tooth. Essentially, what this principle is suggesting is that they only way that the criminal can be punished fairly is if he/she has the crime happen to them in the same fashion that they committed it.
s Against Pre-Marital Sex
"Thou shalt not commit adultery." Exodus 20:14; Deut. 5:18.
"If a man is found sleeping with another man's wife, both the men who slept with her and the woman must die. You must purge the evil from Israel." Deut. 22:22

Laws on Farming & Planting Frui
It is quite evident that both codes have a strong belief that after 4 years of growing and harvesting a crop or fruit, in the 5th year is when the fruits and crops are fully prepared for consumption.
The one exceptional difference between the codes that is exemplified here is that the Code of Hammurabi's punishments take into account the social class of individuals, for example if a slave was to have his tooth or bone broken, the culprit would not have to have his tooth or bone broken in return but instead he would simply have to pay the slave one-half of its value.
In both codes the idea of adultery is seen as one of the most unforgiveable crimes, hence that is why individuals who commit adultery are sentenced to death. It is rather hysteryical if you compare this punishment to the North American society, where there is in fact no legal punishment for adultery. However, in today's North American society adultery is heavily frowned upon.
Both codes were firm believers of women loosng their virgnities to their married spouses and both codes enacted very harsh penalties for any man or woman guilty of committing the act of sex before marriage. Both codes also display similar compassion and forgiveness for women who may not be at fault for having sex, but were forced to by a male counter part. One similarity between both codes is that they both protected their women and their integrity.
- kidnapping
- witness testimony
- stealing
-eye for eye punishments
- pre-marital sex
- adultery
- farming
Similarities In
•One of the striking similarities in language between the Hebrews and the Babylonians is the fact that they both spoke a very analogous language.
•Both Hebrew, the language spoken by the Israelites, and Arabic, the language spoken by the Babylonians, are part of the group of Semitic languages.
What are the Semitic languages?
•The Semitic languages are part of a similar group of related languages whose languages are now spoken by more than 270 million people across the Middle East and Africa.
•They are part of the Afro-asiatic language family.
•Two of the most popular Semitic languages are coincidentally Arabic which is spoken by 206 million people today, and Hebrew which is spoken by about 7 million people today.
•Semitic languages are popular for their nonconcatenative morphology, meaning that the root words are not in fact syllables or words, but are instead isolated sets of consonants, typically three, thus making a trilateral root. Words are formed through filling in the spaces in the consonants with vowels.
•For example, in Arabic, the root meaning "write" has the form k – t – b. From this root, words are formed by filling in the vowels, e.g. kitb "book", kutub "books", ktib "writer", kuttb "writers", kataba "he wrote", yaktubu "he writes", etc.

From Where Do Semitic Languages
Derive From
The Semitic languages can be traced all the way back to the 2nd millennium BCE.
- They have existed in present day Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel and the Arabian Peninsula.
-Semitic languages derived from an original language entitled Proto- Semitic.
-There is in fact no records of this language, however comparative studies have shown that it is possible to conclude that that each Semitic language preserved some Proto-Semitic features while diverging from Proto-Semitic in other features.
-Proto-Semitic’s phonology, much of its vocabulary, its grammar and some of its syntax is displayed in all Semitic languages today.
-It is believed that Proto-Semitic was spoken over the majority of the land until 3500-3000 BCE, when other forms of the language started to develop. There are written records of Proto-Semitic from about 2600 BCE.

Main Differences In Laws & Punishments
There is no doubt that there exists a colossal amount of similarity between the Code of Hammurabi and the Mosaic Law, however there is in fact some very crucial, underlying differences between these two codes that makes each one as unique as it is.
Firstly, one remarkable difference between the codes is the fact that the Code of Hammurabi seems to deliver harsher and in some cases ruthless penalties on its criminals for the simplest of crimes. Individuals who commit the crimes of: false accusation of theft, stealing, receiving stolen property, inability to pay back stolen property can be executed. However, in the Mosaic Code criminals who commit these acts of crime simply have to pay fines. The majority of the crimes in the Code of Hammurabi punish its individuals overwhelmingly by executing them. The Code of Hammurabi seems more focussed on punishing individuals severely, in order to make an example out of them so that society would be afraid to ever commit crimes.

Comparison of Punishments
Contrast the Hammurabic and the Mosaic laws and note any differences between these two codes in what is allowed and disallowed, and/or in proscribed penalties. Look for differences in law, and also in purpose and general tone of the codes. What explains these differences?
Differences
Differences in Codes' Purposes
Compare the Hammurabic and the Mosaic laws and note any laws that are similar or the same in what is allowed and disallowed, and/or in proscribed penalties. Note any language that sounds similar. How might any similarities have come about?
Similarities
During this segment of the presentation, we shall explore the similaries in laws between the Code of Hammurabi. As well as the similarities in language in both codes , specifically the Semitic Language and from where the Semitic languages derived from.
Apprpoximate historical distribution of the Semitic languages.
A digram showing how different forms of semitic languages derived from proto-semitic.
Code of Ha
Notice any similarities between the facial expressions of George Bush and an ape?
In this segment of the presentation we shall
explore the differences in laws between the Mosaic Law and the Code of Hammurabi. As well as the differences in tone and purpose of both laws.
By:Yousif Arya
Both the Code of Hammurabi and the Mosaic Law’s ultimate purpose was to create stability and invoke justice into societies that lacked it. However, there is in fact a number of differences in the objectives and purposes of both codes existence.

The sixth king of the Babylon dynasty, King Hammurabi created the code in tribute to the Gods. However the purpose for the code was to utilize the central authority’s political power to create universal connections among the assorted Babylonian population. It is important to remember that the people of Babylon were polytheistic and believed in many Gods, and what King Hammurabi hoped for was that the Codex would establish a universal ground for his multi-religious population to follow. King Hammurabi’s code on laws and punishments were focussed on creating a common standard of living on morals, class structure, gender relationships and religion. In addition, King Hammurabi’s objective for the Code was to concentrate all the power in society to one common ruler (Hammurabi), and to ensure that the king was seen as the only source of authority.



The tone in which the Code of Hammurabi and the Mosaic laws were created contrast from one another immensely. The goal of the Code of Hammurabi was to simply discipline subjects harshly; however the Mosaic Law’s tone differs greatly from the Code of Hammurabi and any other ancient forms of law because it is centered on the worship of one God. The principles displayed in the Mosaic Law focus on morals and ethics and it illustrates a more humane theme. On the other hand the Code of Hammurabi is simply ruthless and merciless in their punishment which focuses simply on civil and criminal law.
The Mosaic Law is far more humane, and it focuses on the aspects of religion, spirituality and righteousness. The Mosaic Law stresses that one should have love for one another. Unlike, the Code of Hammurabi, who simply seeks to punish individuals to the fullest extent in civil and criminal cases, the Mosaic Law is a strong believer in giving second chances due to the fact that it does not sentence criminals to death for the simplest of crimes. For committing the crimes of false accusation of theft, stealing, receiving stolen property and inability to pay back stolen property the code of Hammurabi seeks the death sentence. However, the Mosaic Law simply chooses to punish these petty criminals with monetary fines, which is a demonstration of the idea that that the Mosaic Law is not only far more humane, but also believes in giving second chances.

In addition, the Mosaic Law not only gives its citizens rules to follow, but it also gives moral guidance on life. One example is due to the fact that in the Bible it states that: “Honor your father and mother, so that you may enjoy long life in the land which the Lord your God has given you.”2
In contrast to the Code of Hammurabi, the Mosaic Law also differed because it created a significantly higher standard for conviction of a capital offense. Before the creation of the Mosaic Law, one could accuse another of a capital offence and that person could be convicted and executed. However, The Mosaic Law required the testimony of at least two witnesses rising the standard for a conviction even higher than in today`s society, where one can be convicted of a offense simply on circumstantial evidence. Evidence of this law is present in the following statement: 15 One witness is not enough to convict anyone accused of any crime or offense they may have committed. A matter must be established by the testimony of two or three witnesses.

One significant difference between the codes is the fact that the Mosaic Law affected all of the citizens and treated them in the same manner, while the Code of Hammurabi’s treatment of its citizens differed greatly due to the fact that there were different social classes in the Babylonian society. The punishments differed based on the status of the victim. The three main classes in the Babylonian society were the patricians ( the upper, noble class men), the plebeians (commoners and regular citizens), and slaves. The Code of Hammurabi makes a significant change in its laws when it comes to be that the victim is a slave. It makes the punishment far less severe due to the slave’s low class identity in society. For example in law number 200. If a patrician has knocked out the tooth of a man that is his equal, his tooth shall be knocked out, however in law number 201. If he has knocked out the tooth of a plebeian, he shall pay one-third of a mina of silver. However, the Mosaic Law does not treat anyone differently, and just as God made everyone equal, the Mosaic Law impacts everyone on the same level. In the Mosaic law there exists no discrimination against slaves and plebeians, and this suggests that the Mosaic Law, unlike the Code of Hammurabi, did not discriminate and place individuals in different social statuses.

Lastly, one immense difference in tone between the two codes is the fact that the Babylonians were very superstitious and their favourite method of determining guilt involved jumping into a holy river. The Babylonians believed that the river Gods would punish the individual by having them drown if they were guilty, and if they were innocent he would let them survive the splash. However, in reality this practice most likely resulted in the selection of criminals who were strong swimmers. One example of this practice is in the law:If any one bring an accusation against a man, and the accused go to the river and leap into the river, if he sink in the river his accuser shall take possession of his house. But if the river prove that the accused is not guilty, and he escape unhurt, then he who had brought the accusation shall be put to death, while he who leaped into the river shall take possession of the house that had belonged to his accuser.2

Differences in Codes' Tone
5. Note any similarities between these ancient codes and your understanding of the current justice system of Canada in what is allowed and disallowed, and/or in proscribed penalties.
Both the Code of Hammurabi and the Mosaic Law have had an immense influence in the creation of the Canadian justice system. The code of Hammurabi was in fact the first written document displaying positive law, which highlighted the role of a government in society. Before the creation of the Code of Hammurabi, there was no previously written documents on law and government, hence that is why the Code of Hammurabi is influential because it provided a blueprint for governments on how to implement justice into a society. The Code of Hammurabi signalled the rise in law and justice in a society, that would abolish the universal ignorance and barbarism that existed in the Babylonian society. The Code of Hammurabi was a first step forward, towards a just society, similar to ours.
Similarities Between Code of Hammurabi and Canada's Legal System
Some of the following laws and principles from the Code of Hammurabi are present in the Canadian legal system; however they may be modified partially:
a) Law. 128. If a man has taken a wife and has not executed a marriage contract, that woman is not a wife.
This law is very similar to the law in Canada that Canadian couples are technically unmarried unless they sign a marriage certificate that announces each other as husband and wife.
b) 138. If a man has divorced his wife, who has not borne him children, he shall pay over to her as much money as was given for her bride-price and the marriage-portion which she brought from her father's house, and so shall divorce her.
This law is similar to the divorce law in Canada that ensures that married couples split the assets and finances of the marriage equally between the husband and wife when terminating a marriage.
C) 142. If a woman has hated her husband and has said, "You shall not possess me," her past shall be inquired into, as to what she lacks. If she has been discreet, and has no vice, and her husband has gone out, and has greatly belittled her, that woman has no blame, she shall take her marriage-portion and go off to her father's house.
This law is a carbon copy of the law in Canada that allows women to divorce their spouse.


Similarities Between Code of Hammurabi and Canadian Law
The Mosaic Law has also had a colossal impact on the Canadian legal system mainly due to the fact that the morals and ethics that are preached in the Mosaic Law, specifically the Ten Commandments, have in fact become laws in the Canadian legal system. For example, in the very own Ten Commandments, which Moses is said to have received from God on top of Mount Sinai, there are included many rules on how God wanted the Israelites to act in Society. For example, some of the rules listed in the Ten Commandments that have become laws in Canada include:


Mosaic Law's Contribution to Canadian Legal System
Mosaic Law Contribution to Canadian Legal System
In addition, some of the other commandments listed aren`t in fact laws in society today, however they are rules and part of a universal or one could say ``natural`` code of ethics and morals. The main difference between rules and laws is the fact that laws are enforced by the higher authority, typically the government, while rules are simply codes of ethics on what is right and wrong in society. The following commandments represent natural rules which members of society strive to follow:
• 3 “You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain, for the Lord will not hold him guiltless who takes His name in vain.
This commandment refers to the moral principle that one should not use misuse the name of God.
• 5 “Honor your father and your mother, that your days may be long upon the land which the Lord your God is giving you.
This commandment refers to the ever natural law that one must respect their parents and treat them with the utmost esteem. There is no law stating that if one is disrespectful to their parents that they will have to pay a fine or be put to death, however it is deemed an expectation in today`s society.
• 7 “You shall not commit adultery.
Another example of an ethical principle that is common in our Canadian culture. Cheaters are not legally punished; however they are frowned upon in society. Spouses who choose to submit themselves in extra-marital affairs are risking the possibility of having a detrimental and negative reputation in society.

Also, the following laws from the Mosaic Law are part of the universal code of ethics on what is unacceptable in society today:
20 “Cursed is anyone who sleeps with his father’s wife, for he dishonors his father’s bed.”
Then all the people shall say, “Amen!”
21 “Cursed is anyone who has sexual relations with any animal.”
Then all the people shall say, “Amen!”
22 “Cursed is anyone who sleeps with his sister, the daughter of his father or the daughter of his mother.”
Then all the people shall say, “Amen!”
23 “Cursed is anyone who sleeps with his mother-in-law.”
Then all the people shall say, “Amen!”

Note any similarities between these ancient codes and the codes of any other modern civilization with which you are familiar.
Codes' Contribution to Modern Civilization
Due to the vast change in trends and norms of today`s society, there are very few modern civilizations which practice the same, older punishments for crimes that the Babylonians and Israelites were succumbed to. Today`s nations have significantly improved their legal systems to give citizens the most fairest and reasonable justice possible. The Code of Hammurabi and the Mosaic Law are perhaps one could say ``out dated`` or even ``old school``, and its punishments for certain laws would be laughed at if used in today`s society. For example, in Canada it is unheard of to have someone sold to pay for their crime of stealing (Mosaic Law Exodus 22), or to have a man`s wife and her sexual partner be strangled and thrown into the water for adultery (Code of Hammurabi law number 129). Despite the rapid change in today`s society from the Babylonian and Israelite society, there are still laws and concepts from both codes present in today`s society:



An Eye For Eye Punishment
Codes' Contribution to Modern Civilization
The old traditions practiced by the Babylonians and the Israelites of punishing individuals on an eye for eye, and tooth for tooth basis have nearly been abolished from our modern civilizations today. However, there are in fact a number of African nations that still use this old concept when punishing certain individuals for heinous crimes. For example, in northern Nigeria the introduction of Islamic or Sharia law has been controversial due to the fact that the introduction of a new form of punishment included the amputation of the limb of thieves. For example thieves will have their hands cut off for stealing. In 2000, Buba Jangebe became the first person in Nigera to have an amputation after being convicted of stealing a cow.
Capital Punishment
The one noteable difference between the Mosaic Law and the Code of Hammurabi is that the Mosaic Law is heavily influenced by God, and God himself is the centerpiece of the Mosaic law. In the Ten Commandments given to Moses himself by God at Mount Sinai, the first commandment states that: Thou shall have no god before me. This is concrete evidence of the doctrine that unlike the Code of Hammurabi whose objective is to discipline its subjects, the Mosaic Law however is more concerned with the Holy God.
Thirdly, The Mosaic Law is far more forgiveable and leanient towards their punishment of criminals, and are strong believers in giving criminals second chances (similar to our society) at life. The goal of the Mosaic Law is not simply to punish criminals, but it is to make them learn from their mistakes. The Mosaic law aims to reconnect the relationship between the defendant and the plaintiff and to also amend the relationship between the lawbreaker and almighty God himself.
The one noteable difference between the Mosaic Law and the Code of Hammurabi is that the Mosaic Law is heavily influenced by God, and God himself is the centerpiece of the Mosaic law. In the Ten Commandments given to Moses himself by God at Mount Sinai, the first commandment states that: Thou shall have no god before me. This is concrete evidence of the doctrine that unlike the Code of Hammurabi whose objective is to discipline its subjects, the Mosaic Law however is more concerned with the Holy God.
Thirdly, The Mosaic Law is far more forgiveable and leanient towards their punishment of criminals, and are strong believers in giving criminals second chances (similar to our society) at life. The goal of the Mosaic Law is not simply to punish criminals, but it is to make them learn from their mistakes. The Mosaic law aims to reconnect the relationship between the defendant and the plaintiff and to also amend the relationship between the lawbreaker and almighty God himself.
The one noteable difference between the Mosaic Law and the Code of Hammurabi is that the Mosaic Law is heavily influenced by God, and God himself is the centerpiece of the Mosaic law. In the Ten Commandments given to Moses himself by God at Mount Sinai, the first commandment states that: Thou shall have no god before me. This is concrete evidence of the doctrine that unlike the Code of Hammurabi whose objective is to discipline its subjects, the Mosaic Law however is more concerned with the Holy God.
Thirdly, The Mosaic Law is far more forgiveable and leanient towards their punishment of criminals, and are strong believers in giving criminals second chances (similar to our society) at life. The goal of the Mosaic Law is not simply to punish criminals, but it is to make them learn from their mistakes. The Mosaic law aims to reconnect the relationship between the defendant and the plaintiff and to also amend the relationship between the lawbreaker and almighty God himself.

In conclusion, one can infer that the Code of Hammurabi and the Mosaic Law both aimed at placing peace and order in society; however the Code of Hammurabi aimed at doing this through a radical and disciplinarian method while the Mosaic Law aimed at accomplishing peace and order through worship of God.
Both the Mosaic Law and the Code of Hammurabi had some of the punishments for severe crimes such as murder, rape, and even stealing in the case of the Code of Hammurabi, be worthy of an execution. In today’s developed society, many countries have abolished the older method of executing criminals, and have simply replaced it with a life sentence in jail. Our beloved nation of Canada no longer prosecutes dangerous offenders with the death penalty, because it was abolished in 1976. However, there are still many nations that use the death penalty as a means in prosecuting some offenders. Below is a list of nations that still use the death penalty for certain crimes:
China
This nation carries out the most amount of executions worldwide, and carries out thousands of executions yearly. The official statistic on the number of executions in 2010, has yet to come out but it is estimated that up to 5000 executions occurred. Crimes punishable by the death penalty include: embezzlement, rape of children, fraud, bombing, people trafficking, piracy, rape, corruption, arson, murder, poaching, endangerment of national security, and terrorism.
Iran
After China, Iran is known to be committing the second most amounts of executions yearly, killing hundreds every year in the open eye of the public. It is estimated that in 2010 over 252 people were executed. Currently one can be sentenced to death if they commit the crimes of murder, armed robbery, drug trafficking, kidnapping, rape, paedophilia, homosexuality, and terrorism.

Lawali Isa had his right hand cut off for stealing three bicycles, a punishment similar to how the Code of Hammurabi and the Mosaic Law treated its criminals. However, it is rather ironic that these criminals who have had their body parts amputated and eliminated, in fact are gracious and grateful for the punishment because it is in fact a blessing in disguise. In the case of Lawali Isa the amputation has turned him from a notorious thief into a religious person.
•6. “You shall not murder``
In the criminal code of Canada, murder is an indictable offense and murders can be sent to jail for life.
•8. ``You shall not steal``,
Stealing is another criminal offence that is mentioned in the Criminal Code, and depending on the severity of your theft, thieves can be fined or even sent for jail for years.
•10. ``You shall not bear false witness against your neighbour``.
Thirdly, the last commandment states that ``you shall not bear false witness against your neighbour``, well this commandment is directly linked to the concept of perjury. Perjury is when one lies in court, and it is in fact an indictable offense that can warrant a jail sentence.
D) Restitution
The concept of restitution is ever present in the Code of Hammurabi and it ensures that payment is made by the offender to the victim for a crime. There are endless examples of laws pertaining to restitution in the Code of Hammurabi. For example law # 8. If a patrician has stolen ox, sheep, ass, pig, or ship, whether from a temple, or a house, he shall pay thirtyfold. If he be a plebeian, he shall return tenfold. If the thief cannot pay, he shall be put to death is evidence of the idea of restitution. In Canada’s legal system the concept of restitution is evident as well through civil court, where civilians are forced to compensate individuals who they may have offended.
In Hammurabi’s very own words: "Let any oppressed man who has a cause come into the presence of my statue as king of justice, and have the inscription on my stele read out, and hear my precious words, that my stele may make the case clear to him; may he understand his cause, and may his heart be set at ease!"
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