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Chapter 1, Introduction to Systems Analysis & Design,

Systems Analysis & Design, 8th Edition
by Tommy Whitlock on 19 May 2010

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Transcript of Chapter 1, Introduction to Systems Analysis & Design,

Systems Analysis and Design 8th Edition Chapter 1
Introduction to Systems Analysis and Design
Chapter Objectives Discuss the impact of information technology on business strategy and success
Define an information system and describe its components
Explain how profiles and models can represent business functions and operations
Explain how the Internet has affected business strategies and relationships
Identify various types of information systems and explain who uses them
Distinguish between structured analysis, object-oriented analysis, and agile methods
Compare the traditional waterfall model with agile methods and models
Discuss the role of the information technology department and the systems analysts who work there
Introduction Companies use information as a weapon in the battle to increase productivity, deliver quality products and services, maintain customer loyalty, and make sound decisions.
Information technology can mean the difference between success and failure
The Impact of Information Technology Information Technology (IT)
Combination of hardware and software products and services that companies use to manage, access, communicate, and share information
The Future of IT
Will see robust growth for at least a decade
The greatest need will be for systems analysts, network administrators, data communications analysts, and software engineers
The Impact of Information Technology The Role of Systems Analysis and Design
Systems Analysis and Design
Step-by-step process for developing high-quality information systems
Systems Analyst
Plan, develop, and maintain information systems
The Impact of Information Technology Who develops Information Systems?
In-house applications
Software packages
Internet-based application services
Outsourcing
Custom solutions
Enterprise-wide software strategies
How versus What
Information System Components A system is a set of related components that produces specific results
A Mission-critical system is one that is vital to a company’s operations
Data consists of basic facts that are the system’s raw material
Information is data that has been transformed into output that is valuable to users
Information systems have five key components: hardware, software, data, processes, and people
Hardware
Is the physical layer of the information system
Moore’s Law
Software
System software
Application software
Enterprise applications
Software
Horizontal system
Vertical system
Legacy systems
Data
Tables store data
By linking the tables, the system can extract specific information
Processes
Describe the tasks and business functions that users, managers, and IT staff members perform to achieve specific results
People
Stakeholders
Users, or end users Understanding The Business Business Process Modeling
Business Profile
Business Models
Business model
Business process
Business process reengineering (BPR)
New Kinds of Companies
Production-oriented
Service-oriented
Internet-dependent
Dot-com (.com)
Brick-and-mortar Impact of the Internet E-Commerce or I-Commerce
B2C (Business-to-Consumer)
B2B (Business-to-Business)
EDI
Extensible markup language (XML)
Supplier relationship management (SRM)
Web-Based System Development
WebSphere
.NET
Web services
Internet-based systems involve various hardware and software designs
How Business Uses InformationSystems In the past, IT managers divided systems into categories based on the user group the system served
Office systems
Operational systems
Decision support systems
Executive information systems
Enterprise computing systems
Support company-wide operations and data management requirements
Enterprise resource planning (ERP)
Many hardware and software vendors target the enterprise computing market
Transaction processing systems
Involve large amounts of data and are mission-critical systems
Efficient because they process a set of transaction-related commands as a group rather than individually
Business support systems
Provide job-related information to users at all levels of a company
Management information systems (MIS)
Radio frequency identification (RFID)
What-if
Knowledge management systems
Called expert systems
Simulate human reasoning by combining a knowledge base and inference rules
Many knowledge management systems use a technique called fuzzy logic
User productivity systems
Technology that improves productivity
Groupware
Information systems integration
Most large companies require systems that combine transaction processing, business support, knowledge management, and user productivity features Information System Users and Their Needs ORGANIZATIONAL LEVELS
TOP MANAGERS
Middle Managers and Knowledge Workers
Supervisors & Team Leaders
Operational Employees BUSINESS FUNCTIONS
Marketing
Production
Human Resources
Information Technology
Accounting
Sales Systems Development Tools Modeling
Business model
Requirements model
Data model
Object model
Network model
Process model
Prototyping
Prototype
Speeds up the development process significantly
Important decisions might be made too early, before business or IT issues are thoroughly understood
Can be an extremely valuable tool Computer-Aided Systems Engineering (CASE) Tools
Also called computer-aided software engineering
CASE tools
Can generate program code, which speeds the implementation process
Overview of Systems Development Methods Structured Analysis
Systems development life cycle (SDLC)
Predictive approach
Uses a set of process models to describe a system graphically
Process-centered technique
Waterfall model Deliverable or end product
Disadvantage in the built-in structure of the SDLC, because the waterfall model does not emphasize interactivity among the phases
This criticism can be valid if the SDLC phases are followed too rigidly
Adjacent phases usually interact
The SDLC model usually includes five steps
Systems planning
Systems analysis
Systems design
Systems implementation
Systems support and security
Systems Planning
Systems planning phase
Systems request – begins the process & describes problems or desired changes
Purpose of this phase is to perform a preliminary investigation
Key part of preliminary investigation is a feasibility study
Systems Analysis
Deliverable is the System requirements document
Systems Design
Deliverable is system design specification
Management and user involvement is critical
Structured Analysis
Systems Implementation
New system is constructed
Systems Support and Security
A well-designed system must be secure, reliable, maintainable, and scalable
Most information systems need to be updated significantly or replaced after several years of operation
Object-oriented Analysis
Combines data & processes that act on the data into things called objects
Object is a member of a class
Objects possess properties
Methods change an object’s properties PERSON
Name
Address
Social Security Number INSTRUCTOR
Name
Address
Social Security Number

Office Location
Office Telephone
Date Hired STUDENT
Name
Address
Social Security Number

Major
GPA
Advisor A message requests specific behavior or information from another object
Usually follow a series of analysis and design phases that are similar to the SDLC
Interactive model
Agile Methods
Are the newest development
Emphasizes continuous feedback
Iterative development
Agile community has published the Agile Manifesto
Spiral model
Agile process determines the end result
Other adaptive variations and related methods exist
Two examples are Scrum and Extreme Programming (XP)
Analysts should understand the pros and cons of any approach before selecting a development method
Other Development Methods
Joint application development (JAD)
Rapid application development (RAD)
Might encounter other systems development techniques
Rational Unified Process (RUP®)
Microsoft Solutions Framework (MSF)
Systems Development Guidelines Develop a project plan
Involve users and listen carefully to them
Use project management tools to identify tasks and milestones
Develop accurate cost and benefit information
Remain flexible
Information Technology Department IT DEPARTMENT

Director
Information Technology

Application Development - Systems Support & Security - User Support - Database Administration - Network Administration - Web Support - Quality Assurance (QA) The Systems Analyst Position Responsibilities
Translate business requirements into IT projects
Required Skills and Background
Solid technical knowledge, strong oral and written communication skills and analytic ability, and an understanding of business operations and processes
Certification
Important credential Career Opportunities
Job titles
Company organization
Company size
Corporate culture
Salary, location, and future growth
Chapter Summary IT refers to the combination of hardware and software resources that companies use to manage, access, communicate, and share information
The essential components of an information system are hardware, software, data, processes, and people
Most companies offer a mix of products, technical and financial services, consulting, and customer support
Systems analyst use modeling, prototyping, and computer aided systems engineering (CASE) tools
Three popular system development approaches are structured analysis, object-oriented analysis (O-O), and agile methods, also called adaptive methods
Regardless of the development strategy, people, tasks, timetables, and cost must be managed effectively using project management tools
The IT department develops, maintains and operates a company’s information systems
Systems analysts need a combination of technical and business knowledge, analytical ability, and communication skills
Systems analysts need to consider salary, location, and future growth potential when making a career decision
THIS COMPLETES CHAPTER 1
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