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Copy of Critical Thinking: Logical Fallacies

card stacking, post hoc, slippery slope, strawman, ad hominem, false authority, non sequitur, false analogy and dilemma
by Rachael Smith on 13 February 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Critical Thinking: Logical Fallacies

Critical Thinking:
Logical Fallacies
3003.5.2--Make inferences and draw conclusions based on evidence in text.


3003.5.3--Evaluate text for fact and opinion
3003.5.5--Select the persuasive device used in an ad or speech (i.e. bandwagon, loaded words, testimonial, name-calling, plain folks, misuse of statistics, transfer, card stacking) 3003.5.6--Identify the logical fallacy (i.e., appeal to fear, personal attack {ad hominem}, false dilemma, false analogy, slippery slope, non sequitur, false authority, post hoc, strawman) within a given argument. The Standards: The STANDARDS: 3003.5.1 3003.5.3 3003.5.5 3003.5.6 3003.5.9 Make inferences and draw conclusions
based on evidence in text. Evaluate text for fact and opinion. Select the persuasive device used in an ad or speech (i.e., bandwagon, loaded words, testimonials, name-calling, plain folks, misuse of statistics, transfer, card stacking. Identify the logicl fallacy (i.e. appeal to fear, personal attack, false dilemma, false analogy, slippery slope, non sequitur, false authority, post hoc, strawman) within a given argument. Identify the statement that reveals the writer's biases, stereotypes, assumptions, or values within a writing sample. What are YOU thinking about? First, we'll explore the fallacies! appeal to fear ad hominem false dilemma false analogy slippery slope false
authority post hoc straw person (strawman) stacking the deck (card stacking) loaded words misuse of statistics Card Stacking Card Stacking "What about the side effects? Well, Alli diet pill won't leave you jittery or make your heart race." "Thirty-three people wrote in support of our decision." “This product has absolutely no trans fats.”
“Hundreds of people died instantly and hundreds more died later from the effects of the unnecessary bomb dropped on Hiroshima." EXAMPLES 1. Give examples of how you’d use this technique to advertise your used car.


2. Give examples of how you’ve used this technique on your own parents.
3. Is this technique ever justified? (For example, historically school social studies textbooks have presented the good and noble ideas and ignored the more embarrassing facts. The justification was to support patriotism.) Explain your answer.
4. Are card stacking and lying the same thing? Explain your choice. Card Stacking: What do you Know? 1. Give examples of how you’d use this technique to advertise your used car.

2.Give examples of how you’ve used this technique on your own parents.

3. Is this technique ever justified? (For example, historically school social studies textbooks have presented the good and noble ideas and ignored the more embarrassing facts. The justification was to support patriotism.) Explain your answer.

4. Are card stacking and lying the same thing? Explain your choice.
Post hoc Event C happened immediately prior to event E.
Therefore, C caused E.
--Starling: "I bought this car from you, and the heater is broken."
Bombo: "It worked before you bought it, so you must have broken it yourself." --Most people who are read the last rites die shortly afterwards;
Therefore, priests are going around killing people with magic words! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vRJUvFG8gbE Why is the following an example of this? A recent study showed that students who cram immediately before examinations usually get lower grades than those who do not. Well, I certainly won’t make that mistake this term. I’m not even going to open a book during the exam period. What else could cause bad grades? If you don't get to bed early, you'll be too tired to do well on the GRE tomorrow. If that happens, you won't get accepted into a decent graduate school. You’ll end up a washed-out alcoholic living in a trash-bin. Movie example Slippery Slope Illustrate your own example of a slippery slope. Straw Person (Straw man) Politician: My opponent believes that higher taxes are the only way to pay for needed improvements. She never met a tax she didn't like. But I have a better idea: let's cut waste in government first. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/opinions/tabatha-southey/to-win-votes-build-a-straw-man-and-paint-on-a-hitler-stache/article2349578/ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v5vzCmURh7o "misrepresentation of an opponent's position" Ad Hominem
PERSONAL ATTACK 1. Person A makes claim X.
2. Person B disregards the claim and attacks Person A.
3. Therefore, Person A's claim is false. "Von Daniken's books about ancient astronauts are worthless because he is a convicted forger and embezzler." https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vmxzb8MQtxc https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v5vzCmURh7o Strawman Cont...
Proponent: Our organization has too many restrictions on membership, and that keeps us from being efficient. Opponent: If we got rid of all the membership rules, we’d end up with unqualified members! Proponent: We should make marijuana available for medical use. Opponent: Giving everyone access to drugs would devastate our youth! Proponent: It’s wrong to scream at students. Opponent: A room full of rowdy students isn’t good for learning. False Authority 1. Person A is (claimed to be) an authority on subject S.

2. Person A makes claim C about subject S.

3. Therefore, C is true. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Elxpr7pzZTc&feature=results_main&playnext=1&list=PL85D5E39ABD34811C
An allergy commercial actor explains why the medication works well while wearing a white lab coat.
A composition uses the phrase “They say … ”
A well-known professional basketball player is shown in shoe advertisements.
Apeal to Authority Non Sequitur A fallacy in which a conclusion does not follow logically from what preceded it. "A non sequitur is any pretended jump in logic that doesn't work cleanly, perhaps because of unfounded premises, unmentioned complicating factors, or alternative explanations, such as 'This war is righteous because we are French!' or 'You will do what I say because you are my wife!'"
(Steve Hindes, Think for Yourself. Fulcrum, 2005) Men are human.
Mary is human.
Therefore, Mary is a man. False Dilemma "Either/Or" A limited number of options (usually two) is given, while in reality there are more options. A false dilemma is an illegitimate use of the "or" operator.
Putting issues or opinions into "black or white" terms is a common instance of this fallacy. Either you're for me or against me America: love it or leave it. Every person is either wholly good or wholly evil. Identify the options given and show (with an example) that there is an additional option. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dln3DJEcghY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7cFTkBLl9w0&feature=related https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=60NSO9pJyVI&feature=related False Analogy In an analogy, two objects (or events), A and B are shown to be similar. Then it is argued that since A has property P, so also B must have property P. An analogy fails when the two objects, A and B, are different in a way which affects whether they both have property P. Employees are like nails. Just as nails must be hit in the head in order to make them work, so must employees. Government is like business, so just as business must be sensitive primarily to the bottom line, so also must government There has to be life on other planets because as of today no one has been able to conclusively prove that there is no life. Clogged arteries require surgery to clear them. If this is true for arteries, so must it be true for our clogged highways which need measures that are as drastic. https://www.youtube.com/embed/VRZk62QNOsM
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