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Guilford's Theory of Intelligence
Transcript of Guilford's Theory of Intelligence
Intelligence Guilford's Structure of Intellect Joy Paul Guilford According to Guilford's Structure of Intellect (SI) theory, an individual's performance on intelligence tests can be traced back to the underlying mental abilities or factors of intelligence. SI theory comprises up to 150 different intellectual abilities organized along three dimensions—Operations, Content, and Products. Product dimension As the name suggests, this dimension contains results of applying particular operations to specific contents. The SI model includes six products, in increasing complexity:
Units—Single items of knowledge.
Classes—Sets of units sharing common attributes.
Relations—Units linked as opposites or in associations, sequences, or analogies.
Systems—Multiple relations interrelated to comprise structures or networks.
Transformations—Changes, perspectives, conversions, or mutations to knowledge.
Implications—Predictions, inferences, consequences, or anticipations of knowledge. Therefore, according to Guilford there are 5 x 3 x 6 = 90 intellectual abilities or factors (his research only confirmed about three behavioral abilities, so it is generally not included in the model). Each ability stands for a particular operation in a particular content area and results in a specific product, such as Comprehension of Figural Units or Evaluation of Semantic Implications. Guilford's original model was composed of 120 components (when the behavioral component is included) because he had not separated Figural Content into separate Auditory and Visual contents, nor had he separated Memory into Memory Recording and Memory Retention. When he separated Figural into Auditory and Visual contents, his model increased to 5 x 5 x 6 = 150 categories. When Guilford separated the Memory functions, his model finally increased to 180 factors. He was a United States psychologist, best remembered for his psychometric study of human intelligence, including the distinction between convergent and divergent production. Operations dimension SI includes six operations or general intellectual processes:
Cognition—The ability to understand, comprehend, discover, and become aware of information.
Memory recording—The ability to encode information.
Memory retention—The ability to recall information.
Divergent production—The ability to generate multiple solutions to a problem; creativity.
Convergent production—The ability to deduce a single solution to a problem; rule-following or problem-solving.
Evaluation—The ability to judge whether or not information is accurate, consistent, or valid. Content dimension SI includes three broad areas of information to which the human intellect applies the six operations:
Figural — Concrete, real world information, tangible objects -- things in the environment. It includes visual—Information perceived through seeing, auditory—Information perceived through hearing and kinesthetic—Information perceived through one's own physical actions.
Symbolic—Information perceived as symbols or signs that stand for something else; e.g., Arabic numerals or the letters of an alphabet, musical and scientific notations..
Semantic-Which is concerned with verbal meaning and ideas. Generally considered to abstract in nature.
Behavioral—Information perceived as acts of people. (This dimension was not fully researched in Guilfords project and remain theoretical and is generally not included in the final model that he proposed for describing human intelligence.)