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Anatomy & Physiology: The Respiratory System

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by james donahue on 26 March 2014

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Transcript of Anatomy & Physiology: The Respiratory System

Pulmonary ventilation
moving air in and out of the lungs

External respiration
diffusion of gases between lungs and blood

Internal respiration
diffusion of gases between blood and tissues

Cellular respiration
sugar + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + ATP

Vibrissae
filters coarse materials
Conchae
mix incoming air
Pharyngotympanic
tube
Uvula
Paranasal Sinuses
Frontal, Maxillary, Sphenoid and Ethmoid Bones
Moisten air
Lighten skull
Joseph Merrick
Pharynx
Potential passage for food and air
Larynx
Trachea
Three regions

nasopharynx

oropharynx

laryngopharynx
(AKA - Throat)
Hard Palate
divides nasal and oral cavities
Also Known As
The Elephant Man
(AKA - Voice Box or Adam's Apple)
Hyoid bone
Epiglottis
Thyroid Cartilage
Cricoid Cartilage
Tracheal Cartilages
Intubation
and the bronchial tree
Trachea
Primary Bronchus
Secondary Bronchi
Tertiary Bronchi
Tracheal Cartilage
esophagus
Tracheal lumen
(ANTERIOR)
(POSTERIOR)
Bronchioles and Alveoli
Lungs
Left Lung
Two Lobes
divided by
One Fissure
1
2
1
2
3
(Oblique Fissure)
Right Lung
Three Lobes
Two Fissures
(Horizontal and Oblique Fissures)
divided by
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
The Pleura
Atelectasis
Lung volumes
Adenocarcinoma
Squamous cell
carcinoma
Small cell
carcinoma
Control of
Breathing
bronchiole
Type I cells - alveolar wall
Type II cells - secrete surfactant
Lung Cancer
Perfluorocarbons
When a mixture of gases is in contact with a liquid, each gas will dissolve in the liquid in proportion to its partial pressure
The amount of gas that will dissolve in a liquid also depends upon its solubility
Various gases in air have different solubilities:
Carbon dioxide is the most soluble
Oxygen is 1/20th as soluble as carbon dioxide
Nitrogen is practically insoluble in plasma
Respiratory membranes:
About 0.5 to 1 micrometers thick, allowing for efficient gas exchange
Have a total surface area (in males) of about 60 square meters (40 times that of one’s skin)
Thicken if lungs become waterlogged and edematous, whereby gas exchange is inadequate and oxygen deprivation results
Decrease in surface area with emphysema, when walls of adjacent alveoli break through
Molecular oxygen is carried in the blood:
Bound to hemoglobin within red blood cells (~98%)
Dissolved in plasma (~2%)
Oxygen Transport
Each Hb molecule binds four oxygen atoms in a rapid and reversible process
The hemoglobin-oxygen combination is called oxyhemoglobin (HbO )
Hemoglobin that has released oxygen is called reduced/deoxy hemoglobin (HHb)
Oxygen Transport: Role of Hemoglobin
HHb + O
Lungs
Tissues
HbO + H
The rate that hemoglobin binds and releases oxygen is regulated by:
Po , temperature, blood pH and Pco
These factors ensure adequate delivery of oxygen to tissue cells
Hemoglobin (Hb)
Henry's Law
Carbon dioxide is transported in the blood in three forms
Dissolved in plasma – 7 to 10%
Chemically bound to hemoglobin – 20% is carried in RBCs as
carbaminohemoglobin
Bicarbonate ion – 70% is transported as bicarbonate (HCO )
Carbon Dioxide Transport
Air

(at sea level)
~78% Nitrogen
~21% Oxygen
~0.04% Carbon Dioxide
Atmospheric Pressure
760 mmHg at sea level
496 mmHg at 12,000 ft.
3,040 mmHg at -99 ft.
(under water)
HAPE

(High Altitude
Pulmonary Edema)
HACE

(High Altitude
Cerebral Edema)
Caisson DisEAse
AKA - The Bends
3
-
2
2
2
2
2
+
Be sure you can:

Boyle's Law
Volume Pressure
Volume Pressure
Pressure is the key
Monster House
Laryngectomy
Chemoreceptors
nerves sensitive to
chemical concentrations
Central Chemoreceptors
Peripheral Chemoreceptors
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