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Copy of Goodenough Harris Drawing Test - Psychometrics Winter2013

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by Dustyn Lang on 12 November 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Goodenough Harris Drawing Test - Psychometrics Winter2013

By: Dustyn Lang, Julie Sauve, Ashley Guertin
Formerly: Goodenough Draw A Man Test
73 criteria either present or absent, 1 pt each
12 quality scale cards
raw score into standardized score
-mean of 100 and a SD of 15.
Quick (15mins), easy and cost efficient to administer and score.
Non-threatening to participants.
Widely used.
unsuitable to compare children across cultures but still may rank children within a culture according to emotional maturity (Harris, 1963).
Non-verbal: transcends language barriers.
Results alone based off of the GHDT can be misleading therefore it is important to be used within a battery of tests.
Reliability
Validity
Scales/Dimensions of Measurement
Uses single continuous scale but 2 developmental dimensions:

1. Core feature: image has characteristics of person (arms, head, eyes, trunk, etc.)

2. Elaboration: image has extra details (clothes, neck, etc.)

NORMS show difference between males and females
GENERAL PROCEDURE OF ADMINISTRATION
BRIEF BIOGRAPHY
Youngest child, farming family, never married, retired early due to physical degeneration, passed away due to stroke in 1959
worked with Terman at Stanford (intelligence tests)
Background Info
SCORING CRITERIA
GHDT Pros/Cons
Sketches
Administered by educators or psychology professionals.
The examiner records the respondent's information (name, age, school-grade, sex).
The respondent is asked to draw a picture of a man, a woman and themselves on a blank sheet of paper.
Paper and pencil test.
Administered in groups or individually.
Un-timed, but generally takes about 15 minutes.
THE GOODENOUGH HARRIS DRAWING TEST
HISTORY
Founders:
Florence

Goodenough
1926 - Goodenough
Draw a man test
Original Test:
Dr. Dale B Harris
and
Age 4.5
1963 GHDT
(Goodenough-Harris) Drawing test
D-A-M (1963) test
Interrater reliability: mid .90s
Test-retest: .75
Internal consistency: .80 (Chronbach's Alpha)
Split-Half: .77 Spearman Brown Formula
Normed on children aged 5-17
Surveyed children with various racial & ethnic groups
Level B
Test
1949 -(Machover)
Draw a person test
Draw a man test
1926
GHDT
1988 - (Naglieri)
Draw A Person : A Quantitative Scoring System
children were asked to draw a picture of a man on a blank sheet of paper
children are asked to make 3 separate drawings: one of a male, one of a female and one of themself.
separate scoring protocols for man drawing vs. woman drawing.
scores of man drawing vs. scores of woman drawing were averaged out
drawing of self remained unscored
Goodenough Harris Drawing test
1963
Age 6.5
DAP: A Quantitative Scoring System
1988
Asked to draw three drawings: one of a man, one of a women and one of the self
The child is asked questions about the drawings
Questions are used to try and reveal child's anxieties, self-esteem level, personality and impulses.
Assesses psychological issues such as mood disorders.
Draw A Person test
1949
Child is asked to draw a picture of a man, woman and them self
Believed test helped to uncover personality traits depending on what characteristics were included in their drawing
Draw A Person: Screening
Procedure of Emotional Disturbance
Created by Naglieri in 1992.
More specific scoring system
based on large standardization sample
Scoring method: 55 items are rated based on drawings/answers given to questions
Concurrent Validity
Correlations between DAM and Binet IQ (.78)
Correlations between DAM and WISC and Stanford Binet Scales
(Dunn, 1967).
DAM is a projective test making validity low
References
Cox, M. (1993). Children's drawings of the human figure. Lawrence Erlbaum Associated Inc. Retrieved from http://books.google.ca/books?id=UTWjNsST3skC&pg=PA77&dq=draw a person test&hl=en&sa=X&ei=UvVcUbSgKI7Hswb7lYCwCw&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAQ
Dunn, James A. (1967). The Reliability and Validity of the new Harris-Goodenough Draw-a-Man Test. Michigan University: Ann Arbor Midwest Research
Harris, Dale B (1963). Children's Drawings as Measures of Intellectual Maturity: A Revision and Extension of the Goodenough Draw-a-Man-Test, 1st edn., New York, NY: Harcourt: Brace and World.
Jolley, Richard P. (2010) Children and Pictures: Drawing and Understanding. Wiley-Blackwell [Online]. Available at: http://books.google.ca/books?id=QpGS9s9zqMoC&pg=PA182&lpg=PA182&dq=goodenough+harris+drawing+test+reliability&source=bl&ots=Ph740vDq2o&sig=NpGqXBiiHGYk-73ieG9gTWVqI6E&hl=en&sa=X&ei=W49TUbX8EuugyAGW-ID4DA&ved=0CHIQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=goodenough%20harris%20drawing%20test%20reliability&f=false (Accessed: March 24 2013).
Kaplan, R., & Saccuzzo, D. (2009). Psychological testing - principles, applications and issues. (7 ed.). Stamford, Connecticut : Cengage Learning Inc.
Reynolds, C., & Kamphaus, R. (2003). Handbook of psychological and educational assessment of children. (2 ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Retrieved from http://books.google.ca/books?id=cOQrEtwSr5QC&pg=PA92&lpg=PA92&dq=goodenough harris drawing test history&source=bl&ots=RhXoKN3Dm&xsig=-b4DwM7PsgSQwRiKRF99g_ImBN0&hl=en&sa=X&ei=A-tcUYXJLcT3sgbx3YDQAg&ved=0CGsQ6AEwCQ
Smith, Jeffery K. (1987). Internal Consistency and Bias Considerations of the Goodenough Harris Draw a Man Test. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 47 (1), 731-736, Retrieved from: http://epm.sagepub.com/content/47/3/731.full.pdf+html

Machover's Draw A Person test
consists of same tasks as GDHT but uses a different scoring system. It can be used to measure children psychologically, or as a measure of mental ability.
(Smith, 1987)
Norms
Scored by Psych Students
2975 individuals, equal M&F
4 Regions, 75 from each age group
7 Occupational Sub-scales
BOYS SCALE
GIRLS SCALE
(Harris, 1963)
(Harris, 1963)
(Harris, 1963)

educational settings
used in batterys of psychological testing
gives a quick but rough estimate of child’s IQ
can be administered in groups or individually
evaluate children with auditory handicaps and suspected neurological weaknesses
Test Usage
Discriminant Validity
Difficult to define due to variety of applications
Research Examples
318 Eskimo children tested in several remote Alaskan schools.
Means of Eskimo children then compared with normative means
Eskimo children scored slightly higher
a smaller amount of cases sampled than normative sample, therefore this difference may be due to sampling error or may be due to cultural differences
(Harris, 1963)
FLORENCE GOODENOUGH
DALE HARRIS
Worked with Goodenough expanded knowledge of the drawing test
Revised the DAM TEST
(Jolley, 2010)
(Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2003)
(Jolley, 2012)
(Harris, 1963)
(Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2003)
(Cox, 1993)
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