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Landscape of Wireless Communications

Electromagnetic spectrum
by RadhaKrishna Arvapally on 21 October 2014

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Transcript of Landscape of Wireless Communications

Wavelength
Frequency
Radio
Infrared
Visible
Ultraviolet
X-ray
Gamma
Violet
Indigo
Blue
Green
Yellow
Orange
Red
AM: Medium wave
530kHz-1610kHz
9kHz spacing
2.3-26.1MHz
14 bands
5kHz channel spacing
3 Hz
300 GHz
430 THz
790 THz
30 PHz
30 EHz
0.01 nm
10 nm
380 nm
700 nm
1 mm
100,000 km
3 Hz
30 Hz
300 Hz
3 KHz
30 KHz
300 KHz
3 MHz
30 MHz
300 MHz
3 GHz
30 GHz
300 GHz
ELF
SLF
ULF
VLF
LF
MF
HF
VHF
UHF
SHF
EHF
Hecta meter
Deca meter
Deci meter
Centi meter
milli meter
kilo meter
153kHz-279kHz
9kHz spacing
Microwave
1 GHz
100 GHz
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
THF
12
3 KHz
300 KHz
300 KHz
3 MHz
3 MHz
30 MHz
30 MHz
300 MHz
300 MHz
3 GHz
3 GHz
30 GHz
30 GHz
300 GHz
430 THz
215 THz
100 THz
300 GHz
IR-A
IR-B
IR-C
668 THz
400 THz
484 THz
508 THz
526 THz
606 THz
789 THz
750 nm
620 nm
590 nm
570 nm
495 nm
450 nm
380 nm
400 nm
100 nm
315 nm
280 nm
UV-A
UV-B
UV-C
400 nm
300 nm
200 nm
122 nm
121 nm
10 nm
Near UV
Middle UV
Far UV
Hydrogen Lymn Alpha
Extreme UV
Vacuum UV
10 nm
Soft X-rays
Hard X-ray
10 nm
10 pm
0.2 nm
300 GHz
3 THz
30 THz
300 THz
Far-IR
Middle IR
Near IR
GSM Freq bands
UMTS FDD freq bands
LTE Bands
UMTS TDD
Applications: Nuclear medical imaging like PET (Positron emission tomography) scan
Applications:
Remote Control
Fiber Optic Lasers
irDA (IR communication between processors)
Thermal Imaging
U
L
C
S
E
O
Applications:
X-Ray radiography/Imaging (x-ray, CT)
Security Check
Applications:
Aqua Purifier
Medical Sterilizers
Black Lights
Gas Discharge Lamps
UV Lasers

Vitamin-D Production
AM: Long wave
AM: Short wave
Multiples of 100 KHz
20X10 = 200 radio stations
Freq
Electric current (electric signal in copper)
2.5 GHz
Residential Microwave ovens
2.4 GHz
802.11 b/g
Ref: http://www.moonblinkwifi.com/2point4freq.cfm
WiFi : 802.11 b channels
5.8 GHz
2.4 GHz
1.9 GHz
900 MHz
2.4 - 2.48 GHz
2.4 GHz
915 MHz
Industrial/Commercial
microwave ovens
900 MHz
900 MHz
ISM Bands
3.1 - 10.6 GHz
400-500 MHz
27 MHz
"Part 15" 49 MHz
L-band
1-2 GHz
S-band
2-4 GHz
C-band
4-8 GHz
X-band
8-12 GHz
Ku-band
12-18 GHz
Ka-band
18-27 GHz
V-band
40-75 GHz
W-band
75-110 GHz
Mm-band
110-300 GHz
um-band
300-3000 GHz
Direct Broadcast Satellite
Fixed Satellite Service
Mobile & Navigational Satellite
wavelength = speed of the wave / freq
Cosmic
Laser
Unlicensed radio bands:
ISM (Industrial, Scientific, Medical)
U-NII (Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure)
UPCS (Unlicensed Personal Communications Services)
Licensing of "x-ray" and "Infrared"
HomeRF
2.4 GHz
2.3 GHz
2.5 GHz
3.5 GHz
315 MHz
433.92 MHz
868 MHz
315 MHz
433.92 MHz
TV band devices
470-854 MHz
TV band device
U-NNI
UPCS

1920-1930 MHz

1910-1920 MHz
2390-2400 MHz
DVB-S
11/12 GHz
DVB-SH
L-band
S-band (<3GHz)
Terrestrial
Analog (NTSC/PAL/SECAM)
Digital (ATSC/DVB-T/ISDB-T/DTMB)
DVB-H
170-230 MHz
470-862 MHz
1.452-1.492 GHz
DVB-NGH
299 792 458 m/sec
340.29 m/sec
THANK YOU
5.8 GHz
RRBS (Rural Remote Broadband Systems
310 MHz - US
433 MHz - EU
902-924 MHz
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Arkrishna
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_laser_applications
CWDM
1270 nm
1290 nm
1310 nm
1330 nm
1350 nm
1370 nm
1390 nm
1410 nm
1430 nm
1450 nm
1470 nm
1490 nm
1510 nm
1530 nm
1550 nm
1570 nm
1590 nm
1610 nm
DWDM
Holographic Video Conferencing
Laser weapons
Laser Radar
Laser Distance measure
Laser show
Low freq waves
3D TV
Light Polarization
Amateur Radio / Ham Radio
Amateur Satellite
Amateur TV
http://ww2.amsat.org/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avalanche_transceiver
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_time_and_frequency_signal_service
ITU-R TF.460-6
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_astronomy
GNSS
GPS (USA)
GLONASS (Russia)
Galileo (EU)
Beidou-2/Compass (china)
Régional Satellite Navigation
IRNSS (India)
Beidou (china)
QZSS (Japan)
(France)
Items in progress:
Android Beam
S-Beam
NFC based Bluetooth head set
http://www.lotek.com/vhf-radio-animal-collars.htm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tracking_collar
http://www.animalrahat.com/
http://www.telenax.com/en/index.php
Heinrich Hertz
Guglielmo Marconi ++
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Longwave
5.9 GHz
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intelligent_Transportation_System
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Connected_car
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dedicated_short-range_communications
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.11p
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vehicular_communication_systems
FCC : 75 MHz
ETSI : 30 MHz
ITS
5470-5725 MHz
5350-5470 MHz
5850-5925 MHz
http://www.fiercewireless.com/tech/story/fcc-charges-ahead-5-ghz-wi-fi-spectrum-plan/2013-02-20
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_WLAN_channels
2.4 GHz, 3.6 GHz, 4.9 GHz, 5 GHz, and 5.9 GHz bands
2.4 GHz (802.11 b/g/n)
3.6 GHz (802.11y)
4.9 GHz (802.11y)
5 GHz (802.11a/h/j/n/ac)
5.9 GHz (802.11p)
Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE)
http://johndayautomotivelectronics.com/alcatel-lucent-launches-lte-connected-car-from-qnx-platform/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.11
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_sensor_network
802.15
Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V)
Vehicle to Roadside (V2R)
Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I)
NA
For comparison
Magnetism
Electromagnetic waves
Sound
CT
MRI
AR Drone
Meter
27.9 MHz
49 MHz
72 MHz
75 MHz
AM:
Expanded band
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Travelers'_information_station
530 KHz
1610 KHz

1710 KHz
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microbroadcasting
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Low-power_broadcasting
LPAM
LPFM
LPTV
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectral_efficiency

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MyriaNed

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultra-wideband

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_resonance_imaging
















Released specifications
ZigBee Home Automation 1.2
ZigBee Smart Energy 1.1b
ZigBee Telecommunication Services 1.0
ZigBee Health Care 1.0
ZigBee RF4CE – Remote Control 1.0
ZigBee RF4CE – Input Device 1.0
ZigBee Light Link 1.0
ZigBee IP 1.0
ZigBee Building Automation 1.0
ZigBee Gateway 1.0
ZigBee Green Power 1.0 as optional feature of ZigBee 2012

Specifications under development
ZigBee Smart Energy 2.0
ZigBee Retail Services
ZigBee Smart Energy 1.2/1.3
ZigBee Light Link 1.1
ZigBee Home Automation 1.3
2.45 GHz
802.15.4
Internet of things
6LoWPAN
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_sensor_network
ISO 18000-7
WiFi Positioning
IEEE 1902.1
Klystron
Magnetron
-ve Resistance Magnetron
Cyclotron freq Magnetron
Traveling wave magnetron
Two cavity klystrons

(Velocity modulation tubes)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_dividend_after_digital_television_transition
802.11ah
-RadhaKrishna
174-230 MHz
470-862 MHz
800 MHz (790-862) - ITU-1
700 MHz (698-806) - ITU-2
S beam
25%
50%
75%
100%
IEEE 802.16
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
Broadband Wireless Access (BWA), Radio In The Loop (RITL), Fixed-Radio Access (FRA), Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) and Metro Wireless (MW).
Fixed Wireless Terminal (FWT)
Wireless local loop (WLL),
IEEE 802.11
iBurst
Super WiFi (IEEE 802.22)
ALU Light switch (Optical switch)
WiBAS
802.16
802.16e (Mobile WiMax)
LUNA ring
http://www.shimz.co.jp/english/theme/dream/lunaring.html
http://www.shimz.co.jp/english/theme/dream/lunaring-mv.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Solar_Power_Exploratory_Research_and_Technology_program
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microwave_power_transmission
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_power_satellite
11,000km x 400km
http://www.eetimes.com/author.asp?doc_id=1320744&page_number=1
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laser_engraving
Sensor n/w: ANT 6LoWPAN DASH7 ONE-NET ZigBee Z-Wave Wibree WirelessHART 802.15.4 MiWi
Hardware Iris Mote Sun SPOT Xbee Arduino
mote & waspmote

WiBro (Wireless Broadband) Korea 2.3G-2.4G

Smart Dust
Nest

Mechanical
LTE-A
5 GHz
60 GHz
MEMS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microelectromechanical_systems
DAB
2.3 GHz
1.4 GHz
NA
Some parts of the world
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_audio_broadcasting
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proximity_card
older 125 kHz devices or the newer 13.56 MHz contactless smartcards.




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DASH7
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RuBee
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_of_Things
T-DMB
TV channel 8,12
7-13
5-6
21-36
14-20
38-51
52-61
http://transition.fcc.gov/mb/audio/bickel/amfmrule.html#LPFM
http://transition.fcc.gov/mb/audio/bickel/amfmrule.html
Process
Store
Transmit
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_light
DUV Lithography
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6472397&tp=?ALU=LU1036607
Non linear photolithography
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STED_microscopy
http://spectrum.ieee.org/semiconductors/devices/twolaser-lithography-shrinks-transistors-on-the-cheap
Advanced Audio Distribution Profile (A2DP)
Attribute Profile (ATT)
Audio/Video Remote Control Profile (AVRCP)
Basic Imaging Profile (BIP)
Basic Printing Profile (BPP)
Common ISDN Access Profile (CIP)
Cordless Telephony Profile (CTP)
Device ID Profile (DIP)
Dial-up Networking Profile (DUN)
Fax Profile (FAX)
File Transfer Profile (FTP)
Generic Audio/Video Distribution Profile (GAVDP)
Generic Access Profile (GAP)
Generic Attribute Profile (GATT)
Generic Object Exchange Profile (GOEP)
Hard Copy Cable Replacement Profile (HCRP)
Health Device Profile (HDP)
Hands-Free Profile (HFP)
Human Interface Device Profile (HID)
Headset Profile (HSP)
Intercom Profile (ICP)
LAN Access Profile (LAP)
Message Access Profile (MAP)
OBject EXchange (OBEX)
Object Push Profile (OPP)
Personal Area Networking Profile (PAN)
Phone Book Access Profile (PBAP, PBA)
Proximity Profile (PXP)
Serial Port Profile (SPP)
Service Discovery Application Profile (SDAP)
SIM Access Profile (SAP, SIM, rSAP)
Synchronization Profile (SYNCH)
Video Distribution Profile (VDP)
Wireless Application Protocol Bearer (WAPB)
Health care profiles
HTP — for medical temperature measurement devices
GLP — for blood glucose monitors
BLP — for blood pressure measurement
Sports and fitness profiles
HRP — for devices which measure heart rate
CSCP — for sensors attached to a bicycle
RSCP — running speed and cadence profile
CPP — cycling power profile
LNP — location and navigation profile
Proximity sensing
FMP — the "find me" profile
PXP — the proximity profile
Alerts and time profiles
The phone alert status profile and alert notification profile
The time profile
XBee 802.15.4
XBee-PRO 802.15.4
XBee DigiMesh 2.4
XBee-PRO DigiMesh 2.4
XBee ZB
XBee-PRO ZB
XBee ZB SMT
XBee-PRO ZB SMT
XBee SE
XBee-PRO SE
XBee-PRO 900HP
XBee-PRO 900 (Legacy)
XBee-PRO XSC (S3B)
XBee-PRO DigiMesh 900 (Legacy)
XBee-PRO 868
XBee 865/868LP
Wireless Wide Area Network (WWAN)
RTT
EDGE
EV-DO x1 Rev 0, Rev A, Rev B and x3 standards.
Flash-OFDM
GPRS
HSPA D and U standards.
LTE
UMTS over W-CDMA
UMTS-TDD
Wi-Fi: 802.11 standard
WiMAX: 802.16 standard
Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)
Wi-Fi: 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n, 802.11ac standards.
Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN)
Bluetooth V4.0 with standard protocol and with low energy protocol
IEEE 802.15.4-2006
Wireless USB
UWB
6loWPAN
ZigBee

CMMB
25 video, 30 Radio, few data channels
(2635-2660 MHz)
(470-862 MHz)
Satellite
Terrestrial
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China_Multimedia_Mobile_Broadcasting
2320 - 2332.5 MHz
2332.5 - 2345 MHz
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sirius_XM_Radio
radhakrishna.arvapally@gmail.com
NA
Only for comparison
http://goo.gl/nTi9iF
20 kHz
2.5 MHz
5 MHz
10 MHz
15 MHz
20 MHz
25 MHz
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiolocation
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiodetermination
TV Band devices (below 900MHz and in 3GHz)
NA
Only for reference
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AirPlay
Twister Movie clip
"Wall-E" Movie clip
406 MHz
Distress radio beacon
Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB)
Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELT)
personal locator beacons (PLB)
Analog
500 KHz
2182 KHz
4125 KHz
6215 KHz
8291 KHz
12.29 MHz
16.42 MHz
121.5 MHz
156.8 MHz
243 MHz
Digital
2187.5 KHz
4207.5 KHz
6312 KHz
8414.5 KHz
12577 KHz
16804.5 KHz
156.525 MHz
Harald Haas : Wireless data from every light bulb
http://prezi.com/7juhryua6d-c/magnetism/
http://www.engadget.com/2014/04/25/guide-to-inflight-wifi/
ViaSat's speedier Ka-band Exede
Row 44's Ku-band solution
Panasonic Avionics' eXConnect
http://airfax.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Panasonic-ICSSC-eXConnect-Paper-Aug-08-2013-Final-Copy.pdf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Arkrishna
RadhaKrishna Arvapally
by
60 GHz (802.11ad)
Public safety WLAN
sub Giga Hz
IoT
802.11af
WhiteFi / Super WiFi
Sub GigaHz
IEEE 802.22
WRAN
(Wireless Regional Area Network)
IEEE 802.11af
White-Fi
Super WiFi
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visible_light_communication
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RONJA
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Li-Fi
See the full transcript