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The bodies response to long term exercise: The Skeletal System

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by Jack Lewis on 16 June 2013

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Transcript of The bodies response to long term exercise: The Skeletal System

The Responses
Increase in bone calcium stores
Mechanical force links to bone strength because the demands that are placed upon the bones will help increase bone strength. Your bone calcium stores are the amount of calcium that is stored in your body. When you exercise your skeletal system responds to this by taking in more calcium. The cells that bring calcium into the bones are called osteoblasts, when you are inactive your osteoblasts slow down and transport less calcium from the blood to the bones. Basically whenever you exercise the bones become stronger when demands are placed upon them so this means your bone calcium stores increase to cope with the demand for calcium. Activities that can build stronger bones include tennis, netball, basketball, aerobics, walking and running. Exercising is also good for the bones as it reduces the risk of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a disease where the bones become weaker and more brittle so there is more chance of fracture. An increase in bone calcium stores benefits an athlete as this is what the reduces the risk of osteoporosis. This means that the athlete is going to be less prone to injury (the athlete won't fracture bones easily).
Increased stretch in ligaments
Ligaments are connective tissue structures that surround the joints, there purpose is to connect two bones, cartilages or hold together a joint. A ligament will increase in flexibility and strength when you exercise on a regular basis. This is because the ligaments will be stretching slightly more than they would if you weren't exercising so this is what helps the ligaments increase in strength. Fibroblasts are cells in the connective tissue that produce collagen and fibres. They do this when an individual exercises and increases the load in which they are bearing. This increase means the fibroblasts have to produce collagen and other fibres relative to the training load, this makes the ligaments more stretchy (pliable). Athletes will require stronger and more flexible ligaments so their body is able to deal with progressive training programmes. For example if an individual wants to improve their strength and become more flexible then the individual will have to progressively increase the weight they lift to improve their strength and flexibility. This will improve muscle mass (if you were to increase the weight you lift your ligaments will have to increase their pliability/flexibility). An athlete will have more pliable ligaments for this reason as they are exercising on a regular basis and placing demands on their ligaments so they will become more pliable as a result of this. This will be beneficial for an athlete such as a gymnast because this sport requires the individual to be able to move quickly and be flexible so if the ligaments are more flexible then the athlete is going to be more successful.
Increased thickness of hyaline cartilage
Hyaline cartilage rests upon the ends of your bones. More commonly known as the articulating surfaces. The function of hyaline cartilage is to protect the bones from wear and tear and provide a small amount of shock absorption when you exercise. For example when you are running the hyaline cartilage in your knee joint will absorb shock when your feet hit the ground when you're running. Hyaline cartilage becomes thicker when you exercise regularly because it gets used to the regular exercise and will strengthen. An increased thickness of hyaline cartilage is beneficial for an athlete because it reduces the risk of injury and osteoarthritis as there bones are protected by this substance.
The bodies response to long term exercise: The Skeletal System
Throughout this presentation I am going to look at how the skeletal system is affected by long term exercise. I am going to talk about increase in bone calcium stores, increased stretch in ligaments, increased thickness of hyaline cartilage and increased production of synovial fluid.
Increased production of synovial fluid
Synovial fluid surrounds the synovial joints to lubricate them, the synovial fluid rests between the hyaline cartilage (which reduces friction between the bones and acts as a shock absorber). For the joints to remain lubricated regular exercise is needed to prevent any injuries. If you didn't exercise then the synovial fluid would dry out and you will be prone to joint inflammation. With regular exercise the synovial fluid becomes less viscous and the range of movement at the joint will increase. The increased production of synovial fluid benefits an athlete because there is a reduced risk of injury. This can also be beneficial to sprinters because when their feet hit the ground there knee joints will be put under a great deal of pressure so with an increased production of synovial fluid there joints have more protection which will reduce the risk of injury to the knees.
By Jack Lewis 13Hm
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