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Circulatory System

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by Devin Weiss on 20 November 2013

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Transcript of Circulatory System

Circulatory System
The Basics
Synopsis
Defined: a summary or abstract of a text or speech ORIGIN: mid 18th cent.: from French précis, literally ‘precise’
Précis
The heart of the matter
Write a Summary referring back on Day #1 notes to write a
"wrap-up" of both days.

Explain how heart rate is controlled.
Trace the route blood takes through the body and heart.
Section Objectives:
Distinguish among the various components of blood and among blood groups.
Liquid; contains proteins; transports red and white blood cells, platelets, nutrients, enzymes, hormones, gases, and inorganic salts
Cell fragments needed for blood clotting
Large; several different types; all contain nuclei; defend the body against disease
Platelets
White blood cells
Transport oxygen and some carbon dioxide; lack a nucleus; contain hemoglobin
Red blood cells
Characteristics
Components
The fluid portion of blood is called plasma.
Your blood is a tissue composed of fluid, cells, and fragments of cells.
Your Blood: Fluid Transport
Plasma is straw colored and makes up about 55 percent of the total volume of blood.
Blood cells-both red and white-and cell fragments are suspended in plasma.
Your Blood: Fluid Transport
Red blood cells carry oxygen to body cells.
The round, disk-shaped cells in blood are red blood cells.
Red blood cells: Oxygen carriers
Question 2
Why is a person with type O blood considered to be a universal blood donor?
After the arteries branch off from the heart, they divide into smaller arteries that in turn divide into even smaller vessels called arterioles.
Blood surges through the arteries in pulses that correspond with the rhythm of the heartbeat.
Your Blood Vessels: Pathways of Circulation
Question 3
Why are the walls in ventricles thicker and more muscular than the walls in the atria?
Type O blood does not contain any antigens, therefore it does not spark an immune response from the body of a person receiving the blood.
Section 2 Check
Blood pressure then drops dramatically as the ventricles relax.
The high pressure is called systolic pressure.
Blood pressure
The impulse also triggers a second set of cells at the base of the right atrium to send the same electrical impulse over the ventricles, causing them to contract.
The impulse signals the two atria to contract at almost the same time.
Heartbeat regulation
The left ventricle pumps blood to the entire body, so its muscles are thicker than those of the right ventricle, which pumps blood to the lungs.
The ventricles perform more work than the atria, a factor that helps explain the thickness of their muscles.
Each atrium pumps blood into the corresponding ventricle.
Your Heart: The Vital Pump
The main function of the heart is to keep blood moving constantly throughout the body.
Your Heart: The Vital Pump
Blood in veins is not under pressure as great as that in the arteries.
In some veins, especially those in your arms and legs, blood travels uphill against gravity.
Your Blood Vessels: Pathways of Circulation
As blood leaves the tissues, the capillaries join to form slightly larger vessels called venules.
Thin capillary walls enable nutrients and gases to diffuse easily between blood cells and surrounding tissue cells.
Your Blood Vessels: Pathways of Circulation
Sometimes, the term blood type is used to describe the blood group to which a person belongs.
Whenever blood is transfused from one person to another, it is important to know to which blood group each person belongs.
ABO Blood Groups
Once biological work has been done in a cell, wastes in the form of carbon dioxide diffuse into the blood and are carried in the bloodstream to the lungs.
Hemoglobin carries some carbon dioxide as well as oxygen.
Carbon dioxide in the blood
Red blood cells are equipped with an iron-containing protein molecule called hemoglobin (HEE muh gloh bun).
Oxygen in the blood
Old red blood cells are destroyed in your spleen, an organ of the lymphatic system, and in your liver.
Red blood cells remain active in the bloodstream for about 120 days, then they break down and are removed as waste.
They make up 44 percent of the total volume of your blood, and are produced in the red bone marrow of your ribs, humerus, femur sternum, and other long bones.
Red blood cells: Oxygen carriers
Section 37.2 Summary – pages 975-984
Blood pressure rises sharply when the ventricles contract, pushing blood through the arteries.
Blood pressure rises and falls as the heart contracts and then relaxes.
Blood pressure is the force that the blood exerts on the blood vessels.
Blood pressure
When the right ventricle contracts, it pushes the oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle out of the heart and toward the lungs through the pulmonary arteries.
After the ventricles have filled with blood, they contract simultaneously.
After they have filled with blood, the two atria then contract, pushing the blood down into the two ventricles.
Blood’s path through the heart
Capillaries form a dense network that reaches virtually every cell in the body.
Capillaries (KA puh ler eez) are microscopic blood vessels with walls that are only one cell thick.
Your Blood Vessels: Pathways of Circulation
They are Rh negative (Rh-) if they don’t.
People are Rh positive (Rh+) if they have the Rh antigen factor on their red blood cells.
Rh factor is an inherited characteristic.
Another characteristic of red blood cells involves the presence or absence of an antigen called RH, or Rhesus factor.
Rh factor
Blood plasma contains proteins, called antibodies (AN tih bahd eez), that are shaped to correspond with the different blood surface antigens.
Blood surface antigens determine blood group
As blood passes through body tissues with low oxygen concentrations, oxygen is released from the hemoglobin and diffuses into the tissues.
These oxygenated blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the body’s cells.
Oxygen becomes loosely bound to the hemoglobin in blood cells that have entered the lungs.
Oxygen in the blood
Platelets
A. red blood cells
B. white blood cells
C. plasma
D. platelets
Question 1
What component of blood is responsible for helping your blood clot?
The right atrium receives oxygen-poor blood from the head and body through two large veins called the vena cava
Blood enters the heart through the atria and leaves it through the ventricles.
Both atria fill up with blood at the same time.
Blood’s path through the heart
Capillary
Vein
The venules merge to form veins, the large blood vessels that carry blood from the tissues back toward the heart.
Your Blood Vessels: Pathways of Circulation
As the heart contracts, it pushes blood through the arteries.
The blood that they carry is under great pressure.
Arteries are large, thick-walled, muscular, elastic blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
Your Blood Vessels: Pathways of Circulation
Clumped blood cells cannot carry oxygen or nutrients to body cells.
If you had anti-A antibodies, they would react with your own type A red blood cells.
For example, if you have type A blood, you have the A antigen on your red blood cells and the anti-B antibody in your plasma.
This reaction results in clumped blood cells that can no longer function.
The antibody in the blood plasma reacts with its matching antigen on red blood cells if they are brought into contact with one another.
Blood surface antigens determine blood group
The letters A and B stand for the types of blood surface antigens found on human red blood cells.
Antigens are substances that stimulate an immune response in the body.
White Blood Cells
They make up only 1% of the total volume of your blood.
White blood cells play a major role in protecting your body from foreign substances and from microscopic organisms that cause disease.
White blood cells: Infection fighters
Capillary
Artery
Arterioles (ar TEER ee ohlz) enter tissues, where they branch into the smallest blood vessels, the capillaries.
Your Blood Vessels: Pathways of Circulation
Possible subsequent pregnancies
Anti-Rh+ antibodies
During the mother’s next pregnancy, Rh antibodies can cross the placenta and endanger the fetus.
Mother makes anti-Rh+ antibodies.
Rh factor
Heartbeat regulation
The walls of each atrium are thinner and less muscular than those of each ventricle.
The two lower chambers are the ventricles.
All mammalian hearts, including yours, have four chambers.
The two upper chambers of the heart are the atria.
Your Heart: The Vital Pump
Rh+ antigens
Placenta
First pregnancy
Mother is exposed to Rh antigens at the birth of her Rh+ baby.
Rh factor can cause complications in some pregnancies.
Rh factor
Your Blood Vessels: Pathways of Circulation
These veins are equipped with valves that prevent blood from flowing backward.
Platelets help link together a sticky network of protein fibers called fibrin, which forms a web over the wound that traps escaping blood cells.
Your blood contains small cell fragments called platelets, which help blood clot after an injury.
Blood clotting
Fibrin
Red blood cells
White blood cells
Platelets
Wood splinter
The passage of blood
The left atrium receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs through four pulmonary veins.
Blood’s path through the heart
At the same time, the left ventricle forcefully pushes oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle out of the heart through the aorta to the arteries of the body. The aorta is the largest blood vessel in the body.
Blood’s path through the heart
Your Blood Vessels: Pathways of Circulation
Pericardium
CA: Biology/Life Sciences 9a
Answer
Arch of aorta
Pulmonary trunk
Left atrium
Left ventricle
Rib (cut)
Left lung
Left coronary artery
Diaphragm
Cut edge of pericardium
Right coronary artery
Right ventricle
Right atrium
Right lung
Superior vena cava
Section 2 Check
The lowest pressure occurs just before the ventricles contract again and is called diastolic pressure.
Blood pressure
Blood passing through the spleen undergoes thorough squeezing by contracting and relaxing its vessels. Therefore, it is to be expected that fragile red blood cells would not withstand the trauma.
(syn or sun- "together" opsis- "seeing")
Distinguish among the various components of blood and among blood groups.
Red blood Cells (RBC) are called erythrocytes
A, B, AB, and O are the four main categories of blood. Each of these blood types is further classified as - or +, which is a reference to the blood's Rhesus factor. People who have the antigen in their blood, or Rh factor, are deemed Rh-positive. For example, a person with the A blood type and Rhesus factor in their blood = A+ blood.
The three main types of blood vessels are arteries, capillaries, and veins.
Ventricles: two lower chambers on each side of the heart that receive blood from the atria and in turn force it into the arteries.
From what ventricle does the blood flow to the aorta?
Arteries- from the heart
Veins- to the heart
Atria: two upper chambers on each side of the heart that receive blood from the veins and in turn force it into the ventricles.
Pericardium is a tough double layered membrane which covers the heart. The space between the two layers of it is filled with a pericardium fluid which protects the heart from any kind of external jerk or shock.
This pacemaker generates an electrical impulse that spreads over both atria.
The heart rate is set by the pacemaker, a bundle of nerve cells located at the top of the right atrium.
Left side receives oxygenated blood from lungs and sends it to the body.
Right side receives deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps blood to the lungs
Pericardium- double layered lining around the heart.
Sinoatrial Node (SA)
Atrioventricular Node (AV)
Sinoatrial Node (SA)
Atrioventricular Node (AV)
What is #1?
Type O blood does not contain any antigens, therefore it does not spark an immune response from the body of a person receiving the blood.
Ventricles have to pump blood to the entire body and Atria only pump blood to the ventricles therefore ventricles are more muscular than Atria.
Put your finger to your neck and feel for your pulse. What is that you are feeling?
Plasma
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