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Copy of Copy of Resistance Against Spanish Rule (History of the Philippines)
Transcript of Copy of Copy of Resistance Against Spanish Rule (History of the Philippines)
RESISTANCE AGAINST SPANISH RULE
Filipinos are known for their hospitality and peacefulness but like every person, these characters have limits. The hostile attitude of the Filipinos started from the time of Legaspi to the 19th century when Lapu-lapu and his men resisted and successfully repulsed Magellan in the Battle of Mactan. The attitude was the result greed and cruelty of the Spaniards to Filipinos.
Magat Salamat Conspiracy
In 1587, a group of Filipinos in Tondo formed a secret society called the first Katipunan whose objective was to regain lost freedom. This was led by Magat Salamat, Lakandula’s son; Agustin de Legaspi; Juan Banal, the chieftain of Tondo; and Pedro Balangit, the Pandacan chief. The conspirators planned to bring the Japanese warriors and weapon to the country and drive the Spaniards out. However, two Filipinos revealed this plan to the Spaniards authorities. Some of the members of the group were executed.
In 1596, the natives of Cagayan led by Magalat revolted against the Spanish authorities. The Governor-General sent Spanish soldiers and hundreds of Filipino mercenaries to suppress the rebellion, but it failed. So, the government was forced to hire an assassin who successfully killed the rebel leader. Magalat’s death ended the Cagayan Revolt.
Sumoroy Revolt (The Samar Revolt)
During the time of Governor-General Diego Fajardo(1644-54) the pople of Palapag, Samar led my Francisco Sumoroy revolted against the Spanish authorities. The Governor ordered the Alacalde-Mayores of Visayas to send able-bodied men to shipyardsin Cavite in building and repairing Galleons. The Samarenos resented because it meant separation of the men to their homes and families. The rebellion started on June 1649 with the killing of the Spanish curate of the town. The punitive expedition, which was composed of Spanish-Filipino forces from Zamboanga, wad repulsed by Sumoroy’s forces. The Samar leader won several encounters after that, but finally, in July 1650, Sumoroy and his followers was captured and executed by the Spaniards.
Lakan Dula (Kapampangan lakan "lord" and dula "palace") was the Malayan title for monarchs in Tondo.
REVOLT OF THE IRRAYAS
(Northern Isabela Revolt)
Gabriel Dayag & Felix Cutabay – brothers who led the Isabela to rise in arms against the Spanish authorities.
Abuatan (avvatan), Battuag, Bolo (Ilagan) and Pilitan Villagers joined the brother’s cause
Fray Pedro de Santo Tomas – Dominican missionary who tried to persuade the rebels but his words were not heeded and was able to leave the rebels unmolested.
With the help of Alcalde of Cagayan and few Spanish soldiers, Father Sto. Tomas was able to convince the Irrayas to end their rebellion.
As a result of this reconciliation, Father Sto. Tomas with the help of rebels founded the towns of Maquila and Cabagan – two new settlements for the Irraya Tribes.
1601 Igorots of Cordilleras violently resisted Christianization, Father Esteban Marin, the first Augustinian curate of Batac, Ilocos Norte, tried to specify the rebels but was put to death. Punitive expedition of Capt. Mateo Aranda crushed the rebellion.
1621 Tamblot, babaylan or native priest led a religious revolt in the island of bohol. He exhorted the people to return to the old religion and to free themselves of Spanish oppression.
The revolt was crushed by Jesuits administrators in Bohol, with the aid of Juan de Alcarazo, Alcalde mayor of Cebu.
Under the leadership of Bankaw, Leyte also raised rebellion. He was once Christian but in his old age, he returns to the old religion by the influence of his sons, and Pagali, a native priest.
The combination of Cebuanos and Spanish Soldiers, the Bankaw and his sons rebellion ended.
1663 Tapar, a sorcerer founded a religious cult in Oton, Panay.
Father de Mesa rejected the religious cult and was killed by Tapar’s men.
MANIAGO REVOLT (Pampanga)
Francisco Maniago a native of Mexico Pampanga, a warlord and led the Pampanguenos to revellion against Spanish.
October 1660 they established camp at Bacolor, and urging the Northern Alcaldia to join the liberation cause.
Governor Manrique de Lara, rushed to Macabebe and persuaded Juan Makapagal, chieftain of arayat to remain Loyal to Spain. He was appointed as Master-of-camp in Spanish Army.
Makapagal’s betrayal divided the Pampanguenos and this became a serious threat to Maniago’s cause.
Maniago arranged a peace overure through Father Andres Salazar with Spanish authorities.
The rebel leader would stop uprising on the following conditions:
o General amnesty to all rebels
o Payment of 200,000PHP to the rebels as what the gov’t owned them.
o Cutting of timber was to continue but the natives were given time to attend to their other activities.
Governor de Lara, agreed Maniago’s terms, thus, the revolt end peacefully.
Malong’s Revolt (Pangasinan) 1660-1661
Andres Malong, a native of Binalongtan (now San Carlos) and a Filipino master of camp led the people to rise in arms against Spanish oppression. The revolt was first started at Lingayen on December 15, 1660. From there the uprising swept the whole province. The rebels killed several Spanish officials, including the Alcalde-mayor. Malong proclaimed himself king of Pangasinan. He appointed Pedro Gumapos an ally count and Melchor de Vera as general of his army. He sent letter to the neighboring provinces urging them to rally to his cause. The Zambals heeded his call and became his allies.
With the ambitious plan extending his kingdom beyond the borders of his province, along sent Gumapos with 3,000 men to Ilocos and Cagayan and General Vera with 6,000 men to Pampanga. This decision, however, proved to be a tactical error, for he was left only with 2,000 men in Pangasinan. Thus, when two government forces led by Felipe Ugalde and Francisco Esteban, were sent to assault Binalatongan, Malong was forced to flee to the mountains. Before the forces of Gumapos and Vera could return to help him, he was relentlessly pursued until he was caught alive. In 1661, Andres Malong together with Vera was executed in Binalatongan. Later Pedro Gumapos also caught and executed at Vigan.
The Malong revolt inspired the Ilocos uprising in 1661 of Pedro Almazan. Like Malong, Almazan proclaimed himself king of Ilocos, with his eldest son as crown prince. Almazan and his followers in the towns of Bacarra and Sannicolas killed the friars and looted and burned the churches. But in the end, the rebellion was quelled by Spanish forces, with help of loyal Filipinos. Like Andres Malong, Almazan was executed.
Dagohoy Rebellion (1744-1829)
In 1744, father Gaspar Morales the Jesuit priest of Inabangan, Bohol, refused to give a Christian burial to Dagohoy’s brother, who died in a duel. The deceased was Canstable, who was ordered by the curate to arrest a man who turned his back on the Christian faith. In the process of pursuing the fugitive, he met his death. Angered by the friar’s ingratitude, Frnacisco Dagohoy killed father Morales.
The murder of the Jesuit priest signaled the start of the rebellion that engulfed the whole island. Dagohoy established a free settlement in the mountains of Bohol. His followers swelled in numbers reaching 20,000.
Twenty (20) Governor-generals, from Gaspar Dela Torre to Juan Martinez tried to suppress the rebellion but they all failed. It was Governor-general Mariano Ricafort (1825-1830) who seriously undertook measures to quell the revolt. He ordered the Alcalde-mayor of Cebu to prepare an expedition composed of 5,000 Cebuanos and Spanish soldiers to suppress the rebellion. Captain Manuel Sanz who led the expedition finally defeated the rebels. Governor-general pardoned 19,000 Boholanos and permitted them to live peacefully in the low land towns.
The Dagohoy revolt will be remembered as longest insurrection in history. It lasted for 85 years.
Diego Silang (Ilocos) 1762-1763
Diego Silang, a mail carrier, led the Ilocanos in revolt against the Spaniards during the British occupation of manila. The Ilocanos, under his leadership demanded the abolition of the hated tribute, and were also against the excesses of the Alcalde-mayor, Antonio Zabala.
Silang and his followers were able to expel the Alcalde-mayor and the abusive Spanish officials out of Vigan. He proclaimed the abolition of forced labor and the payment of tribute. Subsequently, he made Vigan as the capital of his revolutionary government.
Silang’s revel movement spread to Pangasinan and Cagayan. The Spaniards were then busy in their confrontations with the British invaders so they could not defeat his forces. To make matters worst for the Spaniards, Silang accepted the British offer of friendship and protection.
Alarmed by Silang’s growing power and influence, the Spanish authorities decided to hire assassins to eliminate him. Like the Magalat murder before him. Diego Silang was assassinated. Miguel Vicos, a Spanish mestizo and Pedro Becbec, an old friend and aide of Silang with tacit approval of the bishop of Vigan, Bishop Ustariz were the perpetrators of the murder.
The death of Silang, however, did not end the revolt. It was continued by his wife Gabriela, who with the Tinggians successfully repulsed Spanish forces, who were sent to suppress the rebellion. She and Nicolas Carino, Silang’s uncle, defeated the Spanish forces in the battle of Santa.
In the battle of Cabugao, however, the government forces led by Simon de Anda routed Gabriela and her Ilocano followers. Gabriela escaped and was able to organize a new army of Tinggians and Ilocanos. Like the French heroine, “Joan of arc” she led her forces in the final battle of Vigan. She was repulsed and once again she fled to the hinterlands of Abra, where she and her surviving followers were captured. The Philippine “Jan of arc” was executed at Vigan on September 20, 1763
IBANAG REVOLT (Isabela-Cagayan) 1763
- Defeat of Spaniards in from British
- February 2, 1763
- Revolt spread to Cabagan and Tuguegarrao
- Under Juan Marayag and Dabo
- Rebellion didn’t last long
HERMANO PULE REVOLT
(Tagalog Religious Revolt)
- 1840-1841 – 1st major Tagalog religious revolt under Apolinario Dela Cruz
- Apolinario Dela Cruz was an Indio
- Worked as a servant at the hospital of San Juan De Dios
- Founded the Confradia de San Jose
o Religious brotherhood on adoration of St joseph
o Open only to natives
o March 19 feast
o Considered as heretical by the friars
o Pule gathered his followers on Mt Banahaw
o Octavio de San Jorge leadership
o Defeated government forces under Alcalde Juan Ortega
o Gov Gen Marcelino Oraa sent a stronger army to Tayabas
o Pule transferred his rebel camp to Alitao, forested area of Mt cristobal
o Spanish/ Filipino forces forced Pule’s army to flee their camp
o Many were massacred
FAILURE OF THE REVOLTS
-absence of national consciousness
-lack of leaders to unite whole archipelago
-Colonial masters exploited regional enmity among Filipinos
-Archipelagic nature prevented steady communication among provinces
-Superiority of Spanish arms
-Assassination of rebel leaders by compatriots
MUSLIM's RESPONSE TO SPANISH RULE
• The Muslims challenged the power of Spain.
• They were not practically subdued by the Spaniards because they were unified under one religion and a systematic form of government.
• Muslim Wars (1578-1898) were periodic expeditions to Mindanao and Sulu attempting to colonize the islands and the pole.
• The Muslims launched counter raids against the Spaniards. Its initial raid was headed by Rajah Sirongan and Datu Sali of Maguindanao consisting of 50 war vessels and 3,000 warriors targeting Luzon and Visayas
• Due to failure of the earlier expeditions, Governor Juan Cerezo de Salamanca decided to establish a military base in Zamboanga in 1636. A year after it's construction, a brother of Sultan Kudarat named Tagal raided the Visayas for a year when he sailed home he was pursued and executed by Spanish soldiers.
• Sultan Kudarat became the the Sultan of Maguindanao in 1620, at first, Kudarat established friendly relations with the Spaniards as how he treated the Dutch, but hostilities broke out after Spaniards took away the gold possession of the traders of Maguindanao.
• On June 24, 1645, a treaty was signed by Kudarat and Francisco Atienza, Commandant of Zamboanga, recognizing Kudarat's lordship over Pulangi from the Sibuguey river to the Davao Gulf. The treaty also allowed the coming of the missioners.
• Kudarat was the first Filipino Muslim leader who called for "jihad"
SULU and MARANAO RESISTANCE
Governor-General Corcuera returned to Mindanao in January 1638, and began his spirited offensive against Jolo.
Sultan Bungsu and his followers defended Jolo but it was captured after the bloody fighting however Sulatan Bungsu escaped with many of his men
The Maranaos became the next target in 1639.
Kudarat encouraged the Maranaos, they fought off successfully every attempt of the Spaniards to impose rule in Lanao.
Height and Decline of Moro RAIDS
During the second half of the 18th century
Muslims intensified attacks on Christian’s communities in the Visayas and Luzon
They raided and plundered the Malate district in Manila, where they took rich booty and 20 captives.
During the last half of 19th century
Muslims raids declined
Establishments of more Spanish forts and watchtowers along the coasts of Mindanao, the Visayas and North Western Luzon.
Acquisition of stem ships of Moros by the Spaniards, which outsailed and outgunned.
In 1848 – Governor Narciso Claveria defeated the Samalas
In 1850 – Governor Antonio de Urbiztondo captured Jolo
In 1874 – Governor Jose Malocampo occupied the city and established permanent outpost in Jolo that held until the last days of Spanish rule. “Count of Jolo”
LEASE OF SABAH
The capture of Jolo forced Sultan Jamalul A’lam (Kiram) to sue for peace and relocate his capital to Maimbung. In need of funds, he leased on January 1878 his territory, known as North Borneo (now called Sabah) to Baron Gustav Von Overbeck and Alfred Dent of the British East India Company. North Borneo or Sabah was previously owned by the Sultan of Brunei who ceded it to the Sultan of Jolo as a sign of gratitude for the aid given b the Jolo warriors in quelling rebellion in Brunei. The deed of lease provided that the Jolo sultan leased the territory permanently for annual rentals of 5,000 Malayan dollars.
Significance of the Moro Wars
The wars proved that even Muslim were defeated in some occasion; they were still able to consolidate their forces and retaliated. It also proved that the Muslims in Mindanao preferred to die a free man in a battle than to live under subjugation
As an inspiration to heroism, a Filipino organization that advocates women's issues was founded in April 1984 and named GABRIELA, or the General Assembly Binding Women for Reforms, Integrity, Equality, Leadership, and Action.
The town of Dagohoy, Bohol is named in his honor. It was the former President Carlos P. Garcia, then the Vice President, a Boholano, who proposed the name "Dagohoy" in his honor.
Hermano Pule was captured, executed and decapitated on 4 November 1841. His head was placed on a bamboo pole and displayed to the public to bring fear to others who would dare the same.
He was a direct descendant of Shariff Kabungsuwan, a Muslim missionary who brought Islam to the Philippines between the 13th and 14th century. The Philippine province of Sultan Kudarat is named after him.
Sabah is known as "Sabah, negeri di bawah bayu", which means "Sabah, the land below the wind", because of its location just south of the typhoon-prone region around the Philippines.
Sebastián Hurtado de Corcuera
Tapar proclaimed himself "God Almighty" and went around garbed in a woman's dress. Spaniards caught up Tapar with the principal leaders and were killed. Their corpses were carried back to the port of Iloilo, then fastened to bamboo poles in the Halawod (Jalaur) River to be fed on by crocodiles. The woman who was named as the group's "Blessed Virgin Mary" (Maria Santisima) was mercilessly impaled on a bamboo stake and placed strategically at the mouth of the Laglag (now Dueñas) River to be eaten also by crocodiles
In gratitude to the cooperation of Lakandula to Legaspi’s administration, they had an agreement that the Tondo king, Lakandula, and his relatives will have special privileges like exception from forced labor and payment of tributes. But when Legaspi died, his successor, Governor Guido de Lavezares refused to exempt Lakandula and his kin. As a result, during the attack of Limahong, a Chinese pirate, Lakandula rose his revolt against the Spaniards. Only did Lakandula and his men lay down their arms when Legaspi’s grandson, Juan de Salcedo promised him and his relatives that they would give again the exemptions.