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Body System Interactions

Biology project part 2
by Joy Zhou on 9 May 2011

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Transcript of Body System Interactions

Body System Interactions Joy Zhou
Dewitt - 1 Intro All eleven of the human body's systems work together to keep our bodies in perfect balance. Every single system in our body works together with all of the other ten systems simultaneously to keep our bodies in homeostasis. Muscular System For example, the muscular system has plenty of other interactions with the other systems in our bodies, like the skeletal, nervous, circulatory, and digestive systems.

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The muscular system is very closely connected to the skeletal system - literally. Tendons attach muscle to bone, and the muscles work in pairs to move our bodies by bending our joints. The circulatory system is vital to the muscular system, as the circulatory system supplies the oxygen necessary for muscle function and movement The muscular system plays an important part in the digestive system, as many of the organs in the digestive system are composed of certain types of muscles. When the nervous system recieves stimuli from the environment, the muscular system is responsible for then responding to the commands given by the nervous system to move the body. Muscular Dystrophy (MD) is probably one of the most well known diseases of the muscular system. It is a group of hereditary diseases that gradually weakens the muscles in the body, eventually causing complete inability for muscle function. It affects nearly every system in the body, including the respiratory and nervous systems. Fibromyalgia is also a commonly known musculoskeletal disease. It is a medical disorder that causes chronic, widespread pain as well as painful response to pressure. The cause of it is still a mystery. Immune System The immune system also has many interactions between other body systems, such as the skeletal, circulatory, integumentary, and muscular systems. Surprisingly, the muscular system does have interactions with the immune system. Since veins and arteries are composed of muscle, the muscular systme helps pump blood, which contains an extremely important part of the immune system - white blood cells, throughout the body. The circulatory system goes hand in hand with the immune system. A major part of the immune system are white blood cells, which fight off infections and other ailments. The circulator system also carries around helper-T cells, which are extremely important for fighting sicknesses. The integumentary system is also vital to the immune system. Since the integumentary system is basically all of the components of skin, your skin blocks a surprising percentage of pathogens from entering your body, some of which could otherwise cause exteme harm. Also, hairs, which are also part of the integumentary system, can help the immune system block pathogens. Nose hairs are extremely effective in blocking viruses and bacteria from entering your body. The skeletal system also plays an unexpected role in immune system, for bone marrow creates white blood cells (leukocytes) which are a vital part of the immune system. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus, or HIV, is a very well known and unfortunately common disease of the immune system. The virus attacks the helper-T cells in the body, which are vital for fighting off infections. When the T cells are destroyed, the body has an extremely low chance of being able to fight off infections and diseases, making the body extremely vulnerable and creating a place for cancers an infections to thrive. Allergies are also an extremely common disease of the immune system. It is a hypersensitivity disorder of the immune system, in which the system attacks harmless substances, causing many uncomfortable symptoms such as hives, allergic conjunctivitis (pinkeye), and runny nose. Integumentary System The integumentary system has interactions with the immune, excretory, endocrine, and digestive systems. Oddly enough, the integumentary system does have connections with the digestive system. Because the digestive system is responsible for absorbing nutrients for the body, the integumentary system helps out because skin helps absorb lots of vitamin D. The integumentary system also works with the immune system by blocking many harmful substances that the immune system would otherwise have to fight off. As many people know, teenagers tend to have problems with acne. This is due to the endocrine system sending out many hormones that direct the sebaceous glands in your skin to produce lots of oil. The skin is also an important part of the excretory system, as the sweat glands in the body get rid of some excess water and also help maintain a steady body temperature. Skin cancer is a well known disease of the integumentary system. It is caused by the body's absorption of too many UV rays, and has many different degrees of malignancy. It is usually characterized by lesions and tumors growing on the skin, as well as many, many other painful complications. Eczema is a fairly common disease of the integumentary system. It is a form of dermatitis, and its symptoms are usually rashes, swelling, itching, flaking, blistering, oozing, or bleeding of the skin. Although the exact cause is unknown, many believe that hygiene is a very important factor. Skeletal System The skeletal system works with the muscular, circulatory, nervous, and immune systems. As said before, the skeletal system works very closely together with the muscular system. Tendons attach muscle to bone, so that muscles can help bend joints to move the body. The skeletal system is a crucial part to the immune system, as bone marrow produces white blood cells, which are a very important part of the immune system. Bone marrow produces blood, which is the main part of the circulatory system. The nervous system has connections with the skeletal system as well. Since the spinal cord is a main part of the central nervous system, the skeletal system is involved as the spinal cord is made up of bone. Also, the skull protects the brain. The skeletal system has indirect connections with the nervous system through the muscular system as well, because the muscular system responds to signals from the nervous system to move the body, and muscles work to move the skeletal system. Bone cancer is a commonly known, but rare disease of the skeletal system. It is characterized by tumors, whether malignant or benign, that grow on bone. These tumors may or may not destroy bone tissue, and benign tumors are rarely a threat to life as they do not spread or destroy bone tissue. The cause of bone cancer is unknown, although many say it might be hereditary or caused by exposure to radiation or other carcinogens. Arthritis is a common disease of the skeletal system. It is caused by either the inflammation or altogether loss of the cartilage between joints, creating great difficulty and pain in the bending of affected joints. Excretory System The excretory system works with the respiratory, integumentary, circulatory, and digestive systems. The respiratory system is responsible for getting rid of carbon dioxide, a waste, from our bodies and therefore helps out the excretory system. The excretory system works with the circulatory system, as the kidneys filter blood, which is the main part of the circulatory system. The skin works with the excretory system by sweating, which gets rid of excess water from the body. The digestive system is very closely linked to the excretory system, as the digestive system is responsible for absorbing nutrients from food, then sending excess waste to the excretory system for disposal. Kidney stones are a well-known disease of the excretory system. It is caused by wastes such as excess minerals hardening into forms that resemble stones. Kidney stones may cause much pain to pass, as some are small enough to pass through the kidney, while others are the size of boulders and require surgical removal. UTI, or urinary tract infection, is a disease of the excretory system that is more common in women than in men. It is caused by bacteria, commonly E. coli, entering the urinary tract and multiplying, causing many complications with the passage of urine through the body. Reproductive System The reproductive system works together with the nervous, endocrine, excretory, and circulatory systems. The nervous system controls mating behavior in humans and reproductive hormones affect brain development and sexual behavior. The endocrine system works very closely with the reproductive system, as many of the hormones in the endocrine system are made in the reproductive system's organs. For example, the hormone estrogen is made in the ovaries. Also, the reproductive system and the endocrine system work together to maintain sexual functions (e.g. estrogen contributes to a female's ability to bear children). Wastes from the excretory system, typically urine, exit from some of the organs of the reproductive system, such as the urethra. The circulatory system controls some of the erectile tissues of the reproductive system. Infertility is a complication of the reproductive system. It refers to the state of a woman being unable to bear children. The cause of infertility is unknown, although many claim that it is a mixture of factors from the female, the male, unknown factors, and a product of factors on both parts. RTIs or Reproductive Tract Infections are complications of the reproductive system. They are caused by bacteria, usually transmitted through intercourse, entering the reproductive tract, then multiplying and causing infections. A very well known RTI is gonorrhea, which causes discomfort in urination as well as discharge. It may spread if left untreated, and may even affect joints or heart valves. Endocrine System The endocrine system has interactions with the reproductive, nervous, integumentary, and digestive systems. The endocrine system works with the digestive system by commanding the pancreas to create and release insulin, a hormone, into the digestive tract to help break up and take away excess glucose from the blood, which would otherwise be toxic. The integumentary system also works with the endocrine system, as the endocrine system may release certain hormones that command the sebaceous glands to secrete more oil at times. As many people know, adolescents tend to be a little moody, because certain balances of hormones in the body affect the central nervous system, because the cerebellum is part of the endocrine system as well as the central nervous system. The cerebellum is known for controlling emotional functions. The endocrine system also has connections with the reproductive system, as some hormones are made in the organs of the reproductive system, and theses hormones help regulate mating behavior. Hypo and Hyperthyroidism are diseases of the thyroid gland, and important organ of the endocrine system. The cause of hypothyroidism is an underactive thyroid gland that produces very little to no hormones, while hyperthyroidism is caused by an extremely overactive thyroid gland that produces too many hormones. Either disease may cause goiters, which are extremely enlarged thyroid glands, that enlarge the entire neck massively and may even cause difficulty breathing or swallowing. The cause of goiters is almost always an iodine deficiency. Diabetes is a common disease of the endocrine system. The two types, 1 and 2, are both caused by different factors. Diabetes type 1 is usually a genetically inherited disease, while Diabetes type 2 is acquired, and most commonly caused by obesity and/or not enough physical excercise along with an unhealthy diet. Diabetes causes your pancreas to not release enough insulin into the bloodstream, causing the body to be unable to regulate blood sugar levels - which can be extremely dangerous to the body. Nervous System The nervous system works with the muscular, digestive, skeletal, and circulatory systems. The brain controls the circulatory system by maintaining blood pressure and heart rate. The skeletal system is vital to the nervous system, as the skull protects the brain from injury, and the spinal cord is one of the main parts of the central nervous system. The muscles in your body are responsible for responding to commands from the nervous system to move away from dangers. The nervous system picks up stimuli with sensory neurons, then sends commands to the muscular system with motor neurons. The autonomic nervous system controls digestion rate, and also controls drinking and eating behaviors. The brain also controls the muscles needed for eating, digestion, and elimination of wastes. Alzheimer Disease is a disease of the nervous system which causes brain shrinkage and dementia, usually in the elderly. The cause of Alzheimer's is unkonw, although scientists have liked Alzheimer's to a gene that codes for the B-amyloid protein located on chromosome 21. Another cause could be head injury. Unfortunately, as with most other nervous system diseases, there is no cure for Alzheimer's as of yet. Huntington's Disease is an autosomally inherited disease of the nervous system. It usually takes 10 to 15 years to fully develop, and causes the victim to develop involuntarily jerky, fidgety movements. It usually leads to dementia and, sadly, death in most patients. Digestive System The digestive system works with the muscular, nervous, circulatory, and integumentary systems. Many of the organs of the digestive system, such as the stomach, are made of smooth muscle. The muscular system also helps the digestive system push food down through the digestive tract. The autonomic nervous system controls digestion as well as eating behaviors (such as feeling hungry). Elimination of body wastes requires much interaction with the digestive and nervous system as well. The digestive and circulatory systems works very closely together, as the digestive system is reponsible for absorbing nutrients and the circulatory system is responsible for transporting those nutrients to other parts of the body. Oddly enough, the skin works with the digestive system. The skin turns absorbed UV rays into Vitamin D, which is a vital nutrient to the body. Appendicitis is a common disease of the digestive system. The cause of it is unknonw, but it causes severe inflammation of the appendix, which in some cases can be fatal. Surgical removal is the only way to cure appendicitis. Crohn's Disease is an inflammatory disease of any part of the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus. Although the cause of Crohn's disease is unknown, there has shown to be a genetic link to the disease. Crohn's disease causes discomfort, pain, and vomiting due to the inflammation of the digestive tract. There is no cure for Crohn's disease, as treatment options are limitied to just controlling symptoms. Respiratory System The respiratory system has connections with the muscular, circulatory, excretory, and skeletal systems. The muscular system helps the respiratory system, because the diaphram is a muscle that is crucial to respiration. The circulatory and respiratory systems work together very closely. The respiratory system takes in oxygen from the air, then the circulatory system delivers that oxygen to different organs around the body. The respiratory system is an important part of the excretory system, as the excretory system is reponsible for removing excess waste from the body, and the respiratory system removes excess carbon dioxide from the body. The skeletal system helps the respiratory system quite a bit, as the rib cage helps protect the lungs from injury. Asthma is a common disease of the respiratory system. It is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Asthma causes shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, and other complications, due to the inflammation of the airways. Bronchitis is also a common disease of the respiratory system. It is most commonly caused by cigarette smoking, as well as other exposure to irritants. It causes inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi, wheezing, coughing, and other complications of the respiratory system.
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